Category Archives: Food Chemistry

Carmelization Chemistry – Why Sugar Browns

The toasted part of a marshmallow has been carmelized. (John Lustig)

The toasted part of a marshmallow has been carmelized. (John Lustig)

Carmelization is one of the food browning processes, used to give foods a desirable color, flavor, and texture. It is also a process responsible for a burnt sugar flavor or blackening of food.

How Carmelization Works

Carmelization, like the Maillard reaction, is a form of non-enzymatic browning. It occurs when foods containing a high concentration of carbohydrates are heated above a certain temperature. The temperature at which carmelization occurs depends on the type of sugar. The rate at which carmelization proceeds depends on the acidity or pH of the food. Carmelization occurs more quickly at neutral pH than under either acidic or alkaline conditions.

Note fructose has a lower carmelization point than other sugars. Baked goods made using fructose brown more readily than those made using other sugars and often end up darker in color.

Carmelization Temperature of Different Sugars
Sugar Temperature
fructose 110°C, 230°F
galactose 160°C, 320°F
glucose 160°C, 320°F
sucrose (table sugar) 160°C, 320°F
maltose 180°C, 356°F

Carmelization is a process and not a single chemical reaction. As it occurs, water is removed from the carbohydrate. Isomerization and polymerization then take place. This is seen as melting, boiling, foaming, and darkening of sugar.

Carmelization is used to make candies, caramel, ghee, carmelized onions, and carmelized potatoes, among other foods. Foods that contain both carbohydrates and proteins brown from a combination of carmelization and the Maillard reaction.

How Carmelization Works in Sugar

Regular table sugar or sucrose is the best-studied carbohydrate for the carmelization process. It proceeds in the following manner:

  1. The disaccharide sucrose breaks down into the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. This is called a sucrose inversion.
  2. Condensation occurs, where the sugars lose water and react with each other, forming difructose-anhydride.
  3. Further dehydration occurs. Aldoses isomerize to ketoses.
  4. Molecules fragment and polymerize, producing the characteristic caramel color and browned sugar flavor associated with the process. The three main products from sucrose carmelization are the dehydration product caramelan (C12H18O9) and two polymers, carmelen (C36H50O25) and caramelin (C125H188O80).

Carmelization Flavors

Carmelization products have different flavors from each other. Here are some common compounds:

Diacetyl: Diacetyl forms during the first stages of caramelization. Diacetyl contributes a buttery or butterscotch flavor.
Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): Hydroxyacetylfuran (HAF) has a sweet aroma and flavor. Other furans have a nutty flavor.
Maltol: Maltol is the compound associated with the toasty flavor and aroma of freshly baked bread.
Esters and Lactones: These compounds have a sweet flavor, reminiscent of rum.

Food Additives List

Food additives may be either natural ingredients or synthetic (artificial) chemicals. They are added to nearly all foods to improve flavor, prevent caking, slow decomposition, add color, and to improve texture. (Michael Stern)

Burgers (Michael Stern)

A food additive is any substance added to food to improve its appearance, stability, flavor, texture, shelf life, or other characteristic. An additive could be either a natural substance or a synthetic chemical. Here’s a comprehensive list of food additives and their uses.

Alphabetical List of Food Additives and Uses

Food Additives Starting With a Number

  • 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane – Extraction Solvent
  • 1,3-Butylene Glycol – Flavoring Adjunct or Adjuvant, Solubilizer, Solvent, Vehicle
  • 1-Decanol, Natural – Flavoring Agent
  • 1-Octanol, Natural – Flavoring Agent
  • 1-Octen-3-Yl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • 1-Octen-3-Yl Butyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • 10-Undecenal – Flavoring Agent
  • 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine – Flavoring Agent
  • 2,3,5-Trimethylpyrazine – Flavoring Agent
  •  2,3-Dimethylpyrazine – Flavoring Agent
  • 2,3-Pentanedione – Flavoring Agent
  • 2,4,5-Trimethylpyrazine -3-Oxazoline – Flavoring Agent
  • 2,5-Dimethylpyrazine – Flavoring Agent
  • 2,5-Dimethypyrrole – Flavoring Agent
  • 2,6-Dimethyl-5-Heptenal – Flavoring Agent
  • 2,6-Dimethylpyrazine – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Acetylpyrrole – Flavoring Agent
  •  2-Ethyl Fenchol – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Ethyl-3,5(6)-Dimethylpyrazine – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Ethyl-3-Methylpyrazine – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Ethylbutyraldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Ethylbutyric Acid – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Heptanone – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Methoxy-3(5)-Methylpyrazine – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Methoxypyrazine – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Methylbutyl Isovalerate – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Methylundecanal – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Nitropropane – Extraction Solvent
  • 2-Pentanone – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Phenethyl-2-Methylbutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Phenylpropionaldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Phenylpropionaldehyde Dimethyl Acetal – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Triidecenal – Flavoring Agent
  • 2-Undecenol – Flavoring Agent
  • 20 Butanone – Flavoring Agent
  •  3,7-Dimethyl-1-Octanol – Flavoring Agent
  • 3-Acetyl-2,5-Dimethyl Furan – Flavoring Agent
  • 3-Acetylpyridine – Flavoring Agent
  • 3-Heptanone – Flavoring Agent
  • 3-Octanol – Flavoring Agent
  • 3-Octyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • 3-Phenyl-1-Propanol – Flavoring Agent
  • 3-Phenylpropionaldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • 3-Phenylpropyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • 4′-Methyl Acetophenone – Flavoring Agent
  • 4-Methyl-2-Pentanone – Flavoring Agent
  • 5′-Guanylic Acid – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • 5′-Inosinic Acid – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • 5-Methyl-2-Isopropyl-2-Hexenal – Flavoring Agent
  • 6-Hydroxy-3,7-Dimethyloctanoic Acid Lactone – Flavoring Agent
  • 6-Methyl Coumarin – Flavoring Agent
  • 6-Methyl-5-Hepten-2-One – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With A

  • Acacia – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Acesulfame Potassium – Sweetener
  •  Acetaldehyde – Flavoring
  • Acetanisole – Flavoring
  • Acetic Acid, Glacial – Acidifier, Flavoring
  • Acetic and Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Acetion Acetophenone – Flavoring
  • Acetone – Extraction Solvent, Solubilizer, Solvent, Vehicle
  • Acetone Peroxides – Bleaching Agent, Dough Conditioner, Flour Treatment Agent, Maturing Agent, Oxidizing Agent
  • Acetylated Distarch Adipate – Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Acetylated Distarch Phosphate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Acetylated Monoglycerides – Antisticking Agent, Coating Agent, Emulsifier, Film Former, Foaming Agent, Glaze, Lubricant, Polish, Release Agent, Solubilizer, Solvent, Surface-Finishing Agent, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer, Vehicle, Whipping Agent
  • Acid Treated Starch – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Activated Carbon – Decolorizing Agent, Odor Removing Agent, Taste Removing Agent
  • Adipic Acid – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent
  • Agar – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Alginic Acid – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Alkaline Treated Starch – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Allura Red Ac – Color
  • Allyl alpha-Ionone – Flavoring
  • Allyl Cyclohexanepropionate – Flavoring
  • Allyl Heptanoate – Flavoring
  • Allyl Hexanoate – Flavoring
  • Allyl Isothiocyanate – Flavoring
  • Allyl Isovalerate – Flavoring
  • Allyl Tiglate – Flavoring
  • Almond Oil, Bitter, FFPA – Flavoring
  • alpha-Amyl Cinnamic Aldehyde – Flavoring
  • alpha-Amyl Cinnamic Aldehyde Dimethyl Acetal – Flavoring
  • alpha-Amyl Cinnamyl Alcohol – Flavoring Agent
  • alpha-Amylase (Aspergillus Oryzae) – Enzyme
  • alpha-Amylase (Bacillus Megaterium) Expressed in Bacillus Subtilis – Enzyme
  • alpha-Amylase (Bacillus Stearothermophilus) – Enzyme
  • alpha-Amylase (Bacillus Stearothermophilus) Expressed in Bacillus Subtilis – Enzyme
  • alpha-Amylase (Bacillus Subtilis) – Enzyme
  • alpha-Amylase and Glucoamylase (Aspergillus Oryzae) – Enzyme
  • alpha-Amylcinnamaldehyde – Flavoring
  • alpha-Hexyl Cinnamic Aldehyde – Flavoring
  • alpha-Hexylcinnamaldehyde – Flavoring
  • alpha-Ionone – Flavoring
  • alpha-Methyl Cinnamic Aldehyde – Flavoring
  • alpha-Methylbenzyl Alcohol – Flavoring
  • alpha-Methylcinnamaldehyde – Flavoring
  • alpha-Phellandrene – Flavoring
  • alpha-Pinene – Flavoring
  • alpha-Terpinene – Flavoring
  • Aluminum Ammonium Sulfate – Color Fixative, Firming Agent
  • Aluminum Potassium Sulfate – Buffer, Firming Agent, Neutralizing Agent
  • Aluminum Powder – Color
  • Aluminum Silicate – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Aluminum Sodium Sulfate – Buffer, Firming Agent, Neutralizing Agent
  • Aluminum Sulfate – Firming Agent
  • Aluminun Ammonium Sulfate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent
  • Amaranth – Color
  • Ambrette Seed Oil – Flavoring
  • Ammonium Adipate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent
  • Ammonium Alginate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Ammonium Bicarbonate – Alkali, Leavening Agent
  • Ammonium Carbonate – Buffer, General Purpose Additive, Leavening Agent, Neutralizing Agent
  • Ammonium Chloride – Dough Conditioner, Yeast Food
  • Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate – Buffer, Dough Conditioner, Leavening Agent, Neutralizing Agent
  • Ammonium Hydrogen Carbonate – Alkali, Leavening Agent
  • Ammonium Hydroxide – Alkali
  • Ammonium Persulfate – Flour Treatment Agent
  • Ammonium Phosphate, Dibasic – Buffer, Dough Conditioner, Leavening Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Yeast Food
  • Ammonium Phosphate, Monobasic – Buffer, Dough Conditioner, Leavening Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Yeast Food
  • Ammonium Saccharin – Nonnutritive Sweetener, Sugar Substitute
  • Ammonium Salts of Phosphatidic Acid – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Ammonium Sulfate – Dough Conditioner, General Purpose Additive, Yeast Food
  • Amyl Acetate – Carrier Solvent, Flavoring
  • Amyl Cinnamate – Flavoring
  • Amyl Octanoate – Flavoring
  • Amyl Propionate – Flavoring
  • Amyloglucosidases (Aspergillus Niger Var.) – Enzyme
  • Amyris Oil, West Indian Type – Flavoring
  • Anethole – Flavoring
  • Angelica Root Oil – Flavoring
  • Anise Oil – Flavoring
  • Anisole – Flavoring
  • Anisyl Acetate – Flavoring
  • Anisyl Alcohol – Flavoring
  • Anisylacetone – Flavoring
  • Annatto Extracts – Color
  • Anoxomer – Antioxidant
  • Ascorbic Acid – Antioxidant, Dietary Supplement, Nutrient, Preservative
  • Ascorbyl Palmitate – Antioxidant
  • Ascorbyl Stearate – Antioxidant
  • Aspartame – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier, Nonnutritive Sweetener, Sugar Substitute, Sweetener
  • Avian Pepsin – Enzyme
  • Azodicarbonamide – Flour Treatment Agent, Maturing Agent
  • Azorubine – Color

Food Additives Starting With B

  • Balsam Peru Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Basil Oil, Comoros Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Basil Oil, European Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Bay Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Beeswax, White – Coating Agent, Film Former, Firming Agent, General Purpose Additive, Glaze, Polish, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Beeswax, Yellow – Coating Agent, Film Former, Firming Agent, General Purpose Additive, Glaze, Polish, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Beet Red Color
  • Bennzoic Acid – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Benzaldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzoic Acid – Preservative
  • Benzoin Gum – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzophenone – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzoyl Peroxide – Bleaching Agent, Oxidizing Agent
  • Benzyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Alcohol – Carrier Solvent, Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Bezoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Butyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Cinnamate – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Isobutyl Carbinol – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Isobutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Isoeugenyl Ether – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Isovalerate – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Phenylacetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Propionate – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Salicylate – Flavoring Agent
  • Benzyl Utyl Ether – Flavoring Agent
  • Bergamot Oil, Expressed – Flavoring Agent
  • beta-Apo-8′-Carotenal – Color
  • beta-Apo-8′-Carotenoic Acid, Ethyl Ester – Color
  • beta-Caritebe (Synthetic) – Color
  • beta-Carotene – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • beta-Caryophyllene – Flavoring Agent
  • beta-Glucanase (Aspergillus Niger, Var.) – Enzyme
  • beta-Glucanase (Trichoderma Harzianum) – Enzyme
  • beta-Ionone – Flavoring Agent
  • beta-Pinene – Flavoring Agent
  • BHA – Antioxidant
  • BHT – Antioxidant
  • Biotin – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Birch Tar Oil, Rectified – Flavoring Agent
  • Black Pepper Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Blackcurrant Extract – Color
  • Bleached Starch – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Bois De Rose Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Bone Phosphate – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Bornyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Brilliant Black Pn – Color
  • Brilliant Blue FCF – Color
  • Bromelain – Enzyme
  • Brominated Vegetable Oil – Cloud Producing Agent, Flavoring Adjunct or Adjuvant, Flavoring Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent
  • Brown FK – Color
  • Brown HT – Color
  • Butadiene-Styrene 50/50 Rubber – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Butadiene-Styrene 75/25 Rubber – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Butan-1-Ol – Extraction Solvent, Flavoring Agent
  • Butan-2-Ol – Extraction Solvent, Flavoring Agent
  • Butan-3-One-2-Yl Butyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Butane-1,3-Diol – Carrier Solvent
  • Butyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Butyl Alcohol – Flavoring Agent
  • Butyl Butyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Butyl Butyryllactate – Flavoring Agent
  • Butyl Isobutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Butyl P-Hydroxybenzoate – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Butylated Hydroxyanisole – Antioxidant
  • Butylated Hydroxymethylphenol – Antioxidant
  • Butylated Hydroxytoluene – Antioxidant
  • Butyraldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • Butyric Acid – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With C

  • Caffeine – Flavoring Agent
  • Calcium 5′-Guanylate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Calcium 5′-Inosinate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Calcium 5′-Ribonucleotides – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Calcium Acetate – Antimold Agent, Antirope Agent, Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent
  • Calcium Alginate Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Calcium Aluminum Silicate – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Calcium Ascorbate – Antioxidant
  • Calcium Benzoate – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Calcium Bromate – Dough Conditioner, Maturing Agent
  • Calcium Carbonate – Alkali, Anticaking Agent, Dietary Supplement, Dough Conditioner, Drying Agent, Firming Agent, Nutrient, Yeast Food
  • Calcium Chloride – Firming Agent, General Purpose Additive, Sequestrant
  • Calcium Chloride Solution – Firming Agent, General Purpose Additive, Sequestrant
  • Calcium Chloride, Anhydrous – Firming Agent, General Purpose Additive, Sequestrant
  • Calcium Citrate – Buffer, Firming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant
  • Calcium Cyclamates – Sweetening Agent
  • Calcium Di-L-Glutamate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier, Salt Substitute
  • Calcium Dihydrogen Phosphate – Buffer, Firming Agent, Leavening Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Calcium Disodium EDTA – Preservative, Sequestrant
  • Calcium Disodium Ethylenediamine-Tetraacetate – Antioxidant Synergist, Preservative, Sequestrant
  • Calcium DL-Malate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Seasoning Agent
  •  Calcium Ferrocyanide – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Calcium Gluconate – Buffer, Firming Agent, General Purpose Additive, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant
  • Calcium Glycerophosphate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Calcium Hydrogen Sulfite – Firming Agent, Preservative
  • Calcium Hydroxide – Buffer, Firming Agent, General Purpose Additive, Neutralizing Agent
  • Calcium Iodate – Dough Conditioner, Flour Treatment Agent
  • Calcium Lacate – Dough Conditioner
  • Calcium Lactate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Yeast Food
  • Calcium Lactobionate – Firming Agent
  • Calcium Monohydrogen Phosphate – Dough Conditioner, Yeast Food
  • Calcium Oxide – Alkali, Dietary Supplement, Dough Conditioner, Nutrient, Yeast Food
  • Calcium Pantothenate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Calcium Pantothenate, Calcium Chloride Double Salt – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Calcium Pantothenate, Racemic – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Calcium Peroxide – Bleaching Agent, Dough Conditioner, Flour Treatment Agent, Oxidizing Agent
  • Calcium Phosphate, Dibasic – Dietary Supplement, Dough Conditioner, Nutrient, Yeast Food
  • Calcium Phosphate, Monobasic – Buffer, Dietary Supplement, Dough Conditioner, Firming Agent, Leavening Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Nutrient, Sequestrant, Yeast Food
  • Calcium Phosphate, Tribasic – Anticaking Agent, Buffer, Dietary Supplement, Drying Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Nutrient
  • Calcium Polyphosphates – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Sequestrant, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer, Whipping Agent
  • Calcium Propionate – Antimold Agent, Antirope Agent, Preservative
  • Calcium Pyrophosphate – Buffer, Dietary Supplement, Neutralizing Agent, Nutrient
  • Calcium Saccharin – Nonnutritive Sweetener, Sugar Substitute, Sweetening Agent
  • Calcium Silicate – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent, Filter Aid
  • Calcium Sorbate – Antimicrobial Agent, Fungistatic Agent, Preservative
  • Calcium Stearate – Anticaking Agent, Binder, Drying Agent, Emulsifier, Filler, Foaming Agent, Plasticizer, Whipping Agent
  • Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate – Dough Conditioner, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Calcium Sulfate – Dietary Supplement, Dough Conditioner, Firming Agent, Nutrient, Sequestrant, Yeast Food
  • Calciumiodate Maturing Agent
  • Camphene – Flavoring Agent
  • Cananga Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Candelilla Wax – Chewing Gum Base Component, Coating Agent, Film Former, Glaze, Polish, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Canthaxanthin – Color
  • Caramel Color I (Plain) – Color
  • Caramel Color II (Caustic Sulfite Process) – Color
  • Caramel Colors – Color
  • Caraway Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Carbohydrase (Aspergillus Nigar Var. Awamori) – Enzyme
  • Carbohydrase (Aspergillus Niger Var.) – Enzyme
  • Carbohydrase (Aspergillus Oryzae Var.) – Enzyme
  • Carbohydrase (Bacillus Licheniformis) – Enzyme
  • Carbohydrase (Rhizopus Oryzae Var.) – Enzyme
  • Carbohydrase (Saccharoomyces Species) – Enzyme
  • Carbohydrase (Trichoderms Reesei Var.) – Enzyme
  • Carbohydrase and Protease, Mixed (Bacillus Licheniformis) – Enzyme
  • Carbohydrase and Protease, Mixed (Bacillus Subtilis) – Enzyme
  • Carbon Dioxide – Carbonating Agent, Extraction Solvent, Packing Gas
  • Cardamom Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Carmine – Color
  • Carnauba Wax – Coating Agent, Film Former, Glaze, Polish, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Carob Bean Gum – Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Carotene (Algae) – Color
  • Carotene (Vegetable) – Color
  • Carotenoids, Mixed – Color
  • Carrageenan – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Carrot Seed Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Carthamus Red – Color
  • Carthamus Yellow – Color
  • Carvacrol – Flavoring Agent
  • Cascarilla Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Cassia Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Castor Oil – Antisticking Agent, Carrier Solvent, Coating Agent, Film Former, Glaze, Lubricant, Polish, Release Agent, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Catalase – Enzyme
  • Catalase (Aspergillus Niger Var.) – Enzyme
  • Catalase (Micrococcus Lysodeikticus) – Enzyme
  • Cedar Leaf Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Celery Seed Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Cellulase (Penicillium Funiculosum) – Enzyme
  • Cellulase (Tricoderma Reesei) – Enzyme
  • Cellulose, Microcrystalline – Anticaking Agent, Binder, Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Drying Agent, Filler, Formulation Aid, Plasticizer, Tableting Aid
  • Cellulose, Powdered – Anticaking Agent, Binder, Bodying Agent, Bulking Agent, Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Drying Agent, Filler, Filter Aid, Formulation Aid, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Tableting Aid, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer, Thickener
  • Chamomile Oil, English Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Chamomile Oil, German Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Chlorine – Antimicrobial Agent, Bleaching Agent, Flour Treatment Agent, Oxidizing Agent, Preservative
  • Chlorine Dioxide – Flour Treatment Agent
  • Chlorophyllins, Copper Complexes, Sodium and Potassium Salts – Color
  • Chlorophyll – Color
  • Chlorophylls, Copper Complexes – Color
  • Cholic Acid Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Choline Bitartrate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Choline Chloride – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Chymosin a (Escherichia Coli K-12 Containing Prochymosin a Gene) – Enzyme
  • Chymosin B (Aspergillus Niger Var. Awamori Containing Prochymosin B Gene) – Enzyme
  • Chymosin B (Kluyveromyces Lactis Containing the Prochymosin B Gene) – Enzyme
  • Cinnamaldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • Cinnamic Acid – Flavoring Agent
  • Cinnamon Bark Oil, Ceylon Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Cinnamon Leaf Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Cinnamyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Cinnamyl Alcohol, Synthetic – Flavoring Agent
  • Cinnamyl Anthranilate – Flavoring Agent
  • Cinnamyl Formate – Flavoring Agent
  • Cinnamyl Isovalerate – Flavoring Agent
  • Cinnamyl Propionate – Flavoring Agent
  • Cis-3-Hexen-1-Ol – Flavoring Agent
  • Cis-3-Hexenyl 2-Methylbutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Cis-3-Hexenyl Isovalerate – Flavoring Agent
  • Cis-3-Octen-1-Ol – Flavoring Agent
  • Cis-4-Hepten-1-Al – Flavoring Agent
  • Cis-6-Nonen-1-Ol – Flavoring Agent
  • Citral – Flavoring Agent
  • Citranaxanthin – Color
  • Citric Acid – Acid, Acidifier, Antioxidant, Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Flavoring Agent, Formulation Aid, Sequestrant, Tableting Aid
  • Citric and Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Sequestrant, Whipping Agent
  • Citronellal – Flavoring Agent
  • Citronellol – Flavoring Agent
  • Citronellyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Citronellyl Butyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Citronellyl Formate – Flavoring Agent
  • Citronellyl Isobutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Citronellyl Propionate – Flavoring Agent
  • Clary Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Clove Leaf Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Clove Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Clove Stem Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Cochineal – Coloring
  • Cognac Oil, Green – Flavoring Agent
  • Copaiba Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Copper Gluconate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Coriander Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Costus Root Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Cresyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Cubeb Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Cumin Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Cuminic Aldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • Cupric Sulfate – Antimicrobial Agent, Color Fixative, Preservative
  • Curcumin Erythrosine – Color
  • Cyclamen Aldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • Cyclohexane – Extraction Solvent
  • Cyclohexysulfamic Acid – Sweetening Agent

Food Additives Starting With D

  • D-alpha-Tocopherol – Antioxidant, Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • D-alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • D-alpha-Tocopheryl Acid Succinate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • D-Carvone – Flavoring Agent
  • D-Dihydrocarvone – Flavoring Agent
  • D-Limonene – Flavoring Agent
  • Dammar Gum – Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Decanal – Flavoring Agent
  • Decanoic Acid – Component in the Manufacture of Other Food-Grade, Additives, Defoaming Agent, Flavoring Agent
  • Dehydroacetic Acid – Preservative
  • delta-Decalactone – Flavoring Agent
  • delta-Dodecalactone – Flavoring Agent
  • Desoxycholic Acid – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Dexpanthenol – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Dextrin – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  •  Dextrin Ethyl Cellulose – Coating Agent, Film Former, Glaze, Polish, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Dextrins, Roasted – Starch Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Dextrose – Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Formulation Aid, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Nutritive Sweetener, Tableting Aid, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Diacetyl – Flavoring Agent
  • Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Mono- and Diglycerides – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Diacetyltartaric and Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate – Buffer, Dough Conditioner, Leavening Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Yeast Food
  • Diatomaceous Earth – Filter Aid
  • Dibenzyl Ether – Flavoring Agent
  • Dibutyl Sebacate – Flavoring Agent
  • Dicalcium Pyrophosphate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Yeast Food
  • Dichloromethane – Extraction Solvent
  • Diethyl Ether – Extraction Solvent
  • Diethyl Malonate – Flavoring Agent
  • Diethyl Pyrocarbonate – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Diethyl Sebacate – Flavoring Agent
  • Diethyl Succinate – Flavoring Agent
  • Diethyl Tartrate – Carrier Solvent, Flavoring Agent
  • Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether – Carrier Solvent, Extraction Solvent
  • Dihydrocarveol – Flavoring Agent
  • Dihydrocoumarin – Flavoring Agent
  • Dilauryl Thiodipropionate – Antioxidant
  • Dill Seed Oil, European Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Dill Seed Oil, Indian Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Dillweed Oil, American Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Dimethyl Anthranilate – Flavoring Agent
  • Dimethyl Benxyl Carbinyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Dimethyl Benzyl Carbinol – Flavoring Agent
  • Dimethyl Benzyl Carbinyl – Butyrate Flavoring Agent
  • Dimethyl Dicaronate – Preservative
  • Dimethylpolysiloxane – Defoaming Agent
  • Dioctyl Sodium Sulfosuccinate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Surface-Active Agent, Wetting Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Diphenyl – Fungistatic Agent
  • Dipotassium 5′-Guanylate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Dipotassium 5′-Inosinate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Dipotassium Hydrogen Phosphate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant, Yeast Food
  • Disodium 5′-Guanylate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Disodium 5′-Inosinate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Disodium EDTA – Preservative, Sequestrant, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent
  • Disodium Ethylenediamine-Tetraacetate – Antioxidant Synergist, Preservative, Sequestrant
  • Disodium Guanylate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate – Buffer, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer, Whipping Agent
  • Disodium Inosinate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Disodium Pyrophosphate – Buffer, Leavening Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent
  • Distarch Phosphate – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • DL-Alanine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • DL-alpha-Tocopherol – Antioxidant, Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • DL-alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • DL-Aspartic Acid – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • DL-Isoleucine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • DL-Leucine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • DL-Malic Acid – Acid, Acidifier, Flavoring Agent
  • DL-Menthol – Flavoring Agent
  • DL-Menthyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • DL-Methionine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • DL-Panthenol – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • DL-Phenylalanine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • DL-Serine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • DL-Tartaric Acid – Acid, Acidifier, Antioxidant Synergist, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Sequestrant, Whipping Agent
  • DL-Tryptophan – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Dodecyl Gallate – Antioxidant

Food Additives Starting With E

  • Edible Gelatin – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Enzyme Treated Starches – Gelling Agent, Thickener
  • Erythorbic Acid – Antioxidant, Preservative
  • Esters of Glycerol and Thermally Oxidized Soy Bean Fatty Acids – Antispattering Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Estragole Flavoring Agent
  • Ethoxylated Mono- and Diglycerides – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Ethoxyquin – Antioxidant
  • Ethyl 2-Methylbutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Aacetoacetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Acetate – Carrier Solvent, Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Acrylate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Alcohol – Carrier Solvent, Extraction Solvent, Solubilizer, Solvent, Vehicle
  • Ethyl Anthranilate – Flavoring Agent
  •  Ethyl Benzoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Butyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Cellulose – Binder, Carrier, Diluent of Color and Food Additives, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Filler, Formulation Aid, Plasticizer, Tableting Aid
  • Ethyl Cinnamate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Decanoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Formate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Heptanoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Hexanoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Hydroxyethyl Cellulose – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Ethyl Isovalerate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Lactate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Laurate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Maltol – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier, Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Methyl Ketone – Extraction Solvent, Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Methylphenylglycidat – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Nonanoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Oxyhydrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl P-Anisate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl P-Hydroxybenzoate – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Ethyl Phenylacetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Phenylglycidate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Propionate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Protocatechuate – Antioxidant
  • Ethyl Salicylate – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethyl Vanillin – Flavoring Agent
  • Ethylene Dichloride – Solubilizer, Solvent, Vehicle
  • Ethylene Oxide – Fumigant
  • Ethyoxylated Mono- and Diglyerides – Dough Conditioner
  • Eucalyptol – Flavoring Agent
  • Eucalyptus Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Eugenol – Flavoring Agent
  • Eugenyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Eugenyl Methyl Ether – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With F

  • Farnesol – Flavoring Agent
  • Fast Green FCF – Color
  • Fast Red E – Color
  • Fennel Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Ferric Ammonium Citrate – Anticaking Agent, Dietary Supplement, Drying Agent, Nutrient
  • Ferric Phosphate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Ferric Pyrophosphate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Ferrous Ammonium Citrate, Brown – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Ferrous Ammonium Citrate, Green – Anticaking Agent, Dietary Supplement, Drying Agent, Nutrient
  • Ferrous Fumarate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Ferrous Gluconate – Color Adjunct, Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Ferrous Lactate – Color Adjunct
  • Ferrous Sulfate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Ferrous Sulfate, Dried – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Ficin – Enzyme
  • Fir Needle Oil, Canadian Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Fir Needle Oil, Siberian Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Folic Acid – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Food Starch, Modified – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Formic Acid – Flavoring Adjunct or Adjuvant, Preservative
  • Fructose – Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Formulation Aid, Nutritive Sweetener, Tableting Aid
  • Fumaric Acid – Acid, Acidifier, Flavoring Agent
  • Furfural – Extraction Solvent, Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With G

  • gamma-Butyrolcatone – Flavoring Agent
  • gamma-Heptalactone – Flavoring Agent
  • gamma-Nonalactone – Flavoring Agent
  • gamma-Octalactone – Flavoring Agent
  • gamma-Terpinene – Flavoring Agent
  • gamma-Undecalactone – Flavoring Agent
  • gamma-Valerolactone – Flavoring Agent
  • Garlic Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Gellan Gum – Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Geraniol – Flavoring Agent
  • Geranium Oil, Algerian Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Gerannyl Benzoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Geranyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Geranyl Acetoacetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Geranyl Butyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Geranyl Formate – Flavoring Agent
  • Geranyl Phenylacetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Geranyl Propionate – Flavoring Agent
  • Gibberellic Acid – Enzyme Activator
  • Ginger Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Glucono Delta-Lactone – Acid, Acidifier, Leavening Agent, Sequestrant
  • Glucono delta-Lactone – Acid, Acidifier, Leavening Agent
  • Glucose Isomerase (Actinoplanes Missouriensis) – Enzyme
  • Glucose Isomerase (Bacillus Coagulans) – Enzyme
  • Glucose Isomerase (Streptomyces Olivaceous) – Enzyme
  • Glucose Isomerase (Streptomyces Olivochromogenes) – Enzyme
  • Glucose Isomerase (Streptomyces Rubiginosus) – Enzyme
  • Glucose Isomerase (Streptomyces Violaceoniger) – Enzyme
  • Glucose Oxidase (Aspergillus Niger Var.) – Enzyme
  • Glycerin – Binder, Bodying Agent, Bulking Agent, Filler, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Plasticizer, Solubilizer, Solvent, Vehicle
  • Glycerol – Bodying Agent, Bulking Agent, Carrier Solvent, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent
  • Glycerol Diacetate – Carrier Solvent
  • Glycerol Ester of Partially Dimerized Rosin – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Glycerol Ester of Partially Hydrogenated Wood Rosin – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Glycerol Ester of Polymerized Rosin – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Glycerol Ester of Tall Oil Rosin – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Glycerol Ester of Wood Rosin – Chewing Gum Base Component, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent
  • Glycine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Grape Skin Extract – Color
  • Grapefruit Oil, Coldpressed – Flavoring Agent
  • Green S – Color
  • Guaiac Resin – Antioxidant
  • Guar Gum – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Gum Arabic – Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Gum Ghatti – Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Gum Guaiac – Antioxidant, Preservative

Food Additives Starting With H

  • Hemicellulase (Aspergillus Niger, Var.) – Enzyme
  • Heptanal – Flavoring Agent
  • Heptane – Extraction Solvent
  • Heptyl Alcohol – Flavoring Agent
  • Heptylparaben – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Hexabe – Extraction Solvent
  • Hexanal – Flavoring Agent
  • Hexanoic Aacid – Flavoring Agent
  • Hexxyl-2-Buutenoate Flavoring Agent
  • Hexyl 2-Methylbutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Hexyl Alcohol, Natural – Flavoring Agent
  • Hexyl Isovalerate – Flavoring Agent
  • Hops Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Hydrochloric Acid – Acid, Acidifier
  • Hydrogen Peroxide – Bleaching Agent, Oxidizing Agent, Starch-Modifying Agent
  • Hydroxycitronellal – Flavoring Agent
  • Hydroxycitronellal Dimethyl Acetal – Flavoring Agent
  • Hydroxycitronellol – Flavoring Agent
  • Hydroxylated Lecithin – Cloud Producing Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Hydroxypropyl Cellulose – Coating Agent, Emulsifier, Film Former, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Glaze, Polish, Stabilizer, Surface-Finishing Agent, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Hydroxypropyl Distarch Phosphate – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Hydroxypropyl Starch – Binder, Emulsifier, Filler, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Hydroxypropylmethyl Cellulose – Stabilizer, Suspending Agent

Food Additives Starting With I

  • Indigotine – Color
  • Indole – Flavoring Agent
  • Inositol – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Insoluble Polyvinylpyrrolidone – Colloidal Stabilizer, Color Stabilizer
  • Iron Oxide Red – Color
  • Iron Oxide Yellow – Color
  • Iron Oxides – Color
  • Iron, Carbonyl – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Iron, Electrolytic – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Iron, Reduced – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Iso-alpha-Methyl Ionone – Flavoring Agent
  • Isoamyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isoamyl Butyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isoamyl Formate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isoamyl Gallate – Antioxidant
  • Isoamyl Hexanoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isoamyl Isovalerate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isoamyl Salicylate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isobornyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isobutanol – Extraction Solvent
  •  Isobutyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isobutyl Alcohol – Flavoring Agent
  • Isobutyl Butyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isobutyl Cinnamate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isobutyl Phenylacetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isobutyl Salicylate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isobutyl-2-Butenoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isobutylene-Isoprene Copolymer – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Isobutyraldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • Isobutyric Acid – Flavoring Agent
  • Isoeugenol – Flavoring Agent
  • Isoeugenyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Isomalt – Sweetening Agent
  • Isopropyl Acetate – Extraction Solvent, Flavoring Agent
  • Isopropyl Alcohol – Solubilizer, Solvent, Vehicle
  • Isopropyl Citrate Mixture – Antioxidant, Sequestrant
  • Isopropyl Myristate – Carrier Solvent
  • Isopulegol – Flavoring Agent
  • Isoquinoline – Flavoring Agent
  • Isovaleric Acid – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With J

  • Juniper Berry Oil – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With K

  • Kaolin – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Karaya Gum – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Kelp – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient

Food Additives Starting With L

  • L(+)-Tartaric Acid – Acid, Acidifier, Antioxidant Synergist, Sequestrant
  • L-Alanine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Arginine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Arginine Monohydrochloride – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Asparagine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Aspartic Acid – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Carvone – Flavoring Agent
  • L-Cysteine Monohydrochloride – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Cystine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Glutamic Acid – Dietary Supplement, Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier, Nutrient, Salt Substitute
  • L-Glutamic Acid Hydrochloride – Dietary Supplement, Flavoring Agent, Nutrient, Salt Substitute
  • L-Glutamine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Histidine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Histidine Monohydrochloride – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Isoleucine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Leucine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Limonene – Flavoring Agent
  • L-Lysine Monohydrochloride – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Menthol – Flavoring Agent
  • L-Menthone – Flavoring Agent
  • L-Menthyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • L-Methionine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Phenylalanine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Proline – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Serine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Threonine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Tryptophan – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Tyrosine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • L-Valine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Labdanum Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Lactated Mono-Diglycerides – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Lactic Acid – Acid, Acidifier
  • Lactic and Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Lactitol – Sweetening Agent, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Lactylated Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol and Propylene Glycol – Binder, Emulsifier, Filler, Foaming Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Surface-Active Agent, Suspending Agent, Wetting Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Lactylic Esters of Fatty Acids – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Surface-Active Agent, Wetting Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Lanolin, Anyhydrous – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Laurel Leaf Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Lauric Acid – Component in the Manufacture of Other Food-Grade, Additives, Defoaming Agent, Flavoring Agent
  • Lauryl Alcohol, Natural – Flavoring Agent
  • Lauryl Aldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • Lavandin Oil, Abrial Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Lavender Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Lecithin – Antioxidant, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Lecithin, Partially Hydrolyzed Antioxidant, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Lemon Oil, Coldpressed – Flavoring Agent
  • Lemon Oil, Desert Type, Coldpressed – Flavoring Agent
  • Lemon Oil, Distilled – Flavoring Agent
  • Lemongrass Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Light Petroleum – Extraction Solvent
  • Lime Oil, Coldpressed – Flavoring Agent
  • Lime Oil, Distilled – Flavoring Agent
  • Limestone, Ground – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Linaloe Wood Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Linalool – Flavoring Agent
  • Linalyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Linalyl Acetate, Synthetic – Flavoring Agent
  • Linalyl Benzoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Linalyl Formate – Flavoring Agent
  • Linalyl Isobutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Linalyl Propionate – Flavoring Agent
  • Lipase – Enzyme
  • Lipase (Aspergillus Niger Var.) – Enzyme
  • Lipase (Aspergillus Oryzae Var.) – Enzyme
  • Lithol Rubine BK – Color
  • Locust (Carob) Bean Gum – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Lovage Oil – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With M

  • Mace Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Magnesium Carbonate – Alkali, Antibleaching Agent, Anticaking Agent, Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Drying Agent, Formulation Aid, Tableting Aid
  • Magnesium Chloride – Color Retention Agent, Firming Agent
  • Magnesium Di-L-Glutamate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier, Salt Substitute
  • Magnesium DL-Lactate – Buffer, Dietary Supplement, Dough Conditioner, Neutralizing Agent
  • Magnesium Gluconate – Buffer, Firming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Yeast Food
  • Magnesium Hydrogen Carbonate – Carrier, Color Retention Agent, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Formulation Aid, Tableting Aid
  • Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Magnesium Hydroxide – Alkali, Anticaking Agent, Color Adjunct, Drying Agent
  • Magnesium Hydroxide Carbonate – Alkali, Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Magnesium L-Lactate – Buffer, Dietary Supplement, Dough Conditioner, Neutralizing Agent
  • Magnesium Oxide – Alkali, Anticaking Agent, Buffer, Drying Agent, Neutralizing Agent
  • Magnesium Phosphate, Dibasic – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Magnesium Phosphate, Tribasic – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Magnesium Silicate – Filter Aid
  • Magnesium Silicate (Synthetic) – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Magnesium Stearate – Anticaking Agent, Binder, Drying Agent, Emulsifier, Filler, Foaming Agent, Plasticizer, Whipping Agent
  • Magnesium Sulfate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Malic Acid – Acid, Acidifier, Flavoring Agent
  • Malt – Enzyme
  • Malt Carbohydrases – Enzyme
  • Maltilol – Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent
  • Maltilol Syrup – Sweetening Agent
  • Maltitol – Sweetening Agent
  • Maltol – Flavoring Agent
  • Mandarin Oil, Coldpressed – Flavoring Agent
  • Manganese Chloride – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Manganese Gluconate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Manganese Glycerophosphate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Manganese Hypophosphite – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Manganese Sulfate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Mannitol – Dietary Supplement, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Nutrient, Sweetening Agent, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Marjoram Oil, Spanish Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Marjoram Oil, Sweet – Flavoring Agent
  • Masticatory Substances, Natural – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Mentha Arvensis Oil, Partially Dementholized – Flavoring Agent
  • Menthol – Flavoring Agent
  • Methanol – Extraction Solvent
  • Methycellulose – Bodying Agent, Bulking Agent
  • Methyl 2-Methylbutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl 2-Octynoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl Alcohol – Solubilizer, Solvent, Vehicle
  • Methyl Anthranilate – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl Benzoate – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl beta-Naphthyl Ketone – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl Cellulose – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Methyl Cinnamate – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl Cyclopentenoione – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl Ester of Rosin, Partially Hydrogenated – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Methyl Ethyl Cellulose – Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Methyl Eugenol – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl Isoeugenol – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl N-Methyl Anthranilate – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl Phenylacetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Methyl Phenylcarbinyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Methylbenzyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Methylcellulose – Binder, Coating Agent, Emulsifier, Filler, Film Former, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Glaze, Plasticizer, Polish, Stabilizer, Surface-Finishing Agent, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Methylene Chloride – Solubilizer, Solvent, Vehicle
  • Methylparaben – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Microcrystalline Cellulose – Anticaking Agent, Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Drying Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Formulation Aid, Tableting Aid, Whipping Agent
  • Mineral Oil – Release Agent, Sealing Agent
  • Mineral Oil, White – Antisticking Agent, Binder, Coating Agent, Defoaming Agent, Filler, Film Former, Glaze, Lubricant, Plasticizer, Polish, Release Agent, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Mixed Carbohydrase and Protease (Bacillus Subtilis) – Enzyme
  • Modified Starch – Gelling Agent, Thickener
  • Modified Starches – Binder, Filler, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent
  • Mono- and Diglycerides – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Monoammonium L-Glutamate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier, Salt Substitute
  • Monoglyceride Citrate – Antioxidant Solubilizer, Flavor Solubilizer
  • Monopotassium L-Glutamate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier, Salt Substitute
  • Monosodium L-Glutamate – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier
  • Monostarch Phosphate – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Myrcene – Flavoring Agent
  • Myristic Acid – Component in the Manufacture of Other Food-Grade, Additives, Defoaming Agent, Flavoring Agent
  • Myrrh Oil – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With N

  • N-Acetyl-L-Methionine – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Nerol – Flavoring Agent
  • Nerolidol – Flavoring Agent
  • Niacin – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Niacinamide – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Niacinamide Ascorbate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Nisin – Preservative
  • Nitrogen – Freezant, Packing Gas
  • Nitrous Oxide – Propellant
  • Nonanal – Flavoring Agent
  • Nonyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Nonyl Alcohol – Flavoring Agent
  • Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid – Antioxidant
  • Nutmeg Oil – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With O

  • O-Phenylphenol – Preservative
  • Octanal – Flavoring Agent
  • Octanoic Acid – Component in the Manufacture of Other Food-Grade, Additives, Defoaming Agent, Flavoring Agent
  • Octyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Octyl Formate – Flavoring Agent
  • Octyl Gallate – Antioxidant
  • Oleic Acid – Antisticking Agent, Binder, Component in the Manufacture of Other Food-Grade, Additives, Defoaming Agent, Filler, Lubricant, Plasticizer, Release Agent
  • Oleoresin Black Pepper – Flavoring Agent
  • Oleoresin Capsicum – Flavoring Agent
  • Oleoresin Celery – Flavoring Agent
  • Oleoresin Ginger – Flavoring Agent
  • Oleoresin Paprika – Flavoring Agent
  • Oleoresin Turmeric – Flavoring Agent
  • Olibanum Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Onion Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Orange GGN – Color
  • Orange Oil, Bitter, Coldpressed – Flavoring Agent
  •  Orange Oil, Coldpressed – Flavoring Agent
  • Orange Oil, Distilled Origanum Oil, Spanish Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Orris Root Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Oxidized Starch – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Thickener
  • Oxidized Starch Polyglycerol Esters of Interesterified Ricinoleic Acid – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Oxystearin – Antifoaming Agent, Defoaming Agent, Sequestrant

Food Additives Starting With P

  • P-Methoxybenzaldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • P-Methyl Anisole – Flavoring Agent
  • P-Propyl Anisole – Flavoring Agent
  • P-Propylanisole – Flavoring Agent
  • P-Tolyl Isobutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Palmarosa Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Palmitic Acid – Component in the Manufacture of Other Food-Grade, Additives, Defoaming Agent
  • Papain – Enzyme
  • Paprika Oleoresins – Color, Flavoring Agent
  • Paraffin Wax – Chewing Gum Base Component, Defoaming Agent
  • Paraffin, Synthetic – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Parsley Herb Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Parsley Seed Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Patent Blue V – Color
  • Pectin – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Pectinases (Aspergillus Niger, Var.) – Enzyme
  • Pennyroyal Oil – Flavoring Agent
  •  Pentaerythritol Ester of Wood Rosin – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Pentapotassium Triphosphate – Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Pentasodium Triphosphate – Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Peppermint Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Pepsin – Enzyme
  • Perlite – Filter Aid
  • Petitgrain Oil, Paraguay Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Petrolatum – Antisticking Agent, Coating Agent, Defoaming Agent, Film Former, Glaze, Lubricant, Polish, Release Agent, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Petroleum Jelly – Antifoaming Agent, Antisticking Agent, Lubricant, Release Agent, Sealing Agent
  • Petroleum Wax – Chewing Gum Base Component, Coating Agent, Defoaming Agent, Film Former, Glaze, Polish, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Petroleum Wax, Synthetic Chewing Gum Base Component, Coating Agent, Defoaming Agent, Film Former, Glaze, Polish, Surface-Finishing Agent
  •  Phenylacetaldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • Phenoxyethyl Isobutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Phenethyl Salicylate – Flavoring Agent
  • Phenethyl Phenylacetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Phenethyl Isovalerate – Flavoring Agent
  • Phenethyl Isobutyrate – Flavoring Agent
  • Phenethyl Alcohol – Flavoring Agent
  • Phenethyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Phenylacetaldehyde Dimethyl Acetal Flavoring Agent
  • Phenylacetic Acid Flavoring Agent
  • Phosphated Distarch Phosphate – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Phosphoric Acid – Acid, Acidifier, Antioxidant Synergist, Sequestrant
  • Pimaricin – Fungicidal Preservative
  • Pimenta Leaf Oil F- lavoring Agent
  • Pimenta Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Pine Needle Oil, Dwarf – Flavoring Agent
  • Pine Needle Oil, Scotch Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Piperonal – Flavoring Agent
  • Poloxamer 331 – Flavoring Adjunct or Adjuvant, Solubilizer, Solvent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Vehicle
  • Poloxamer 407 – Flavoring Adjunct or Adjuvant, Solubilizer, Solvent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Vehicle
  • Polydextroses – Bodying Agent, Bulking Agent, Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Formulation Aid, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Tableting Aid, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer, Thickener
  • Polydimethylsiloxane – Anticaking Agent, Antifoaming Agent, Drying Agent
  • Polyethylene – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Polyethylene Glycols – Antisticking Agent, Binder, Carrier, Carrier Solvent, Coating Agent, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Filler, Film Former, Flavoring Adjunct or Adjuvant, Formulation Aid, Glaze, Lubricant, Plasticizer, Polish, Release Agent, Surface-Finishing Agent, Tableting Aid
  • Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Polyisobutylene – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monolaurate – Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Formulation Aid, Tableting Aid, Whipping Agent
  • Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monooleate – Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Formulation Aid, Tableting Aid, Whipping Agent
  • Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monopalmitate – Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Formulation Aid, Tableting Aid, Whipping Agent
  • Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monostearate- Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Formulation Aid, Tableting Aid, Whipping Agent
  • Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Tristearate – Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Formulation Aid, Tableting Aid, Whipping Agent
  • Polyoxyethylene (40) Stearate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Polyoxyethylene (8) Stearate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Polypropylene Glycol – Defoaming Agent
  • Polysorbate 20 – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Polysorbate 60 – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Polysorbate 65 – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Polysorbate 80 – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Polyvinyl Acetate – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone – Clarifying Agent
  • Polyvinylpyrrolidone – Bodying Agent, Bulking Agent, Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Formulation Aid, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Tableting Aid
  • Ponceau 4R – Color
  • Potassium Acetate – Antimicrobial Agent, Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Preservative
  •  Potassium Acid Tartate – Acid, Acidifier
  • Potassium Acid Tartrate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent
  • Potassium Adipate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent
  • Potassium Alginate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Potassium Benzoate – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Potassium Bicarbonate – Alkali, Leavening Agent
  • Potassium Bromate – Bleaching Agent, Dough Conditioner, Maturing Agent, Oxidizing Agent
  • Potassium Carbonate – Alkali
  • Potassium Carbonate Solution – Alkali
  • Potassium Chloride – Dietary Supplement, Gelling Agent, Nutrient, Salt Substitute, Seasoning Agent, Thickener, Yeast Food
  • Potassium Citrate – Buffer, General Purpose Additive, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant
  •  Potassium Dihydrogen Citrate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant, Yeast Food
  • Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant
  • Potassium Ferrocyanide – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Potassium Gibberellate – Enzyme Activator
  • Potassium Gluconate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient, Sequestrant, Yeast Food
  • Potassium Glycerophosphate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Potassium Hydroxide – Alkali
  • Potassium Iodate – Dough Conditioner, Flour Treatment Agent, Maturing Agent
  • Potassium Iodide – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Potassium Lactate (Solution) – Antioxidant Synergist
  • Potassium Metabisulfite – Antibrowning Agent, Antimicrobial Agent, Antioxidant, Preservative
  • Potassium Nitrate – Antimicrobial Agent, Color Fixative, Preservative
  • Potassium Nitrite – Antimicrobial Agent, Color Fixative, Preservative
  • Potassium Persulfate – Flour Treatment Agent
  • Potassium Phosphate, Dibasic – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant, Yeast Food
  • Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant, Yeast Food
  • Potassium Phosphate, Tribasic – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Potassium Polymetaphosphate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Potassium Polyphosphates – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Sequestrant, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer, Whipping Agent
  • Potassium Pyrophosphate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer, Whipping Agent
  • Potassium Saccharin – Sweetening Agent
  • Potassium Sodium L(+)-Tartrate – Sequestrant, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent
  • Potassium Sorbate – Antimicrobial Agent, Fungistatic Agent, Preservative
  • Potassium Sulfate – General Purpose Additive, Salt Substitute
  • Potassium Sulfite – Antioxidant, Preservative
  • Potassium Tripolyphosphate – Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Powdered Cellulose – Anticaking Agent, Carrier, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Drying Agent, Formulation Aid, Tableting Aid
  • Processed Eucheuma Seaweed – Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Propan-1-Ol – Extraction Solvent
  • Propan-2-Ol – Carrier Solvent, Extraction Solvent
  • Propenylguaethol – Flavoring Agent
  • Propionaldehyde – Flavoring Agent
  • Propionic Acid – Antimold Agent, Antirope Agent, Flavoring Agent, Preservative
  • Propyl Gallate – Antioxidant
  • Propyl P-Hydroxybenzoate – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Propylene Glycol – Carrier Solvent, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Solubilizer, Solvent, Surface-Active Agent, Vehicle, Wetting Agent
  • Propylene Glycol Alginate – Defoaming Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Propylene Glycol Esters of Fatty Acids – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Propylene Glycol Mono- and Diesters – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Propylene Oxide – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Propylparaben – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Protease (Aspergillus Niger Var.) – Enzyme
  • Protease (Aspergillus Oryzae Var.) – Enzyme
  • Protease (Spreptomyces Fradiae) – Enzyme
  • Pullulanase (Klebsiella Aerogenes) – Enzyme
  • PVP – Bodying Agent, Bulking Agent, Carrier, Clarifying Agent, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Formulation Aid, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Tableting Aid
  • Pyridoxine Hydrochloride – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Pyrrole – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With Q

  • Quillaia Extracts – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Quinine Hydrochloride – Flavoring Agent
  • Quinine Sulfate – Flavoring Agent
  • Quinoline – Yellow Color

Food Additives Starting With R

  • Red 2G – Color
  • Rennet – Enzyme
  • Rennet (Bacillus Cereus) – Enzyme
  • Rennet (Endothis Parasitica) – Enzyme
  • Rennet (Mucor Species) – Enzyme
  • Rennet, Bovine – Enzyme
  • Rhodinol – Flavoring Agent
  • Rhodinyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Rhodinyl Formate – Flavoring Agent
  • Riboflain – Color
  • Riboflavin – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Riboflavin 5′-Phosphate Sodium – Color, Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Rice Bran Wax – Chewing Gum Base Component, Coating Agent, Film Former, Glaze, Polish, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Rose Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Rosemary Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Rue Oil – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With S

  • Saccharin – Nonnutritive Sweetener, Sugar Substitute, Sweetening Agent
  • Saffron – Color
  • Sage Oil, Dalmatian Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Sage Oil, Spanish Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Salts of Fatty Acids – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sandalwood Oil, East Indian Type – Flavoring Agent
  • Santalol – Flavoring Agent
  • Santalyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Savory Oil (Summer Variety) – Flavoring Agent
  • Shellac, Bleached – Coating Agent, Film Former, Glaze, Polish, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Shellac, Bleached, Wax Free – Coating Agent, Film Former, Glaze, Polish, Surface-Finishing Agent
  • Silicon Dioxide – Anticaking Agent, Carrier, Defoaming Agent, Disintegrating Agent, Dispersing Agent, Drying Agent, Formulation Aid, Tableting Aid
  •  Silicon Dioxide Amorphous – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Smoke Flavorings – Color, Flavoring Agent
  • Sodiium Stearoyl Lactylate – Stabilizer, Suspending Agent
  • Sodium Acetate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent
  • Sodium Acetate, Anhydrous – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent
  • Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate – Buffer, Leavening Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant
  • Sodium Adipate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent
  • Sodium Alginate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Sodium Aluminosilicate – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Sodium Aluminum Phosphate, Acidic – Leavening Agent
  • Sodium Aluminum Phosphate, Basic – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sodium Ascorbate – Antioxidant, Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Sodium Benzoate – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Sodium Bicarbonate – Alkali, Leavening Agent
  • Sodium Bisulfate – Acid, Acidifier
  • Sodium Bisulfite – Preservative
  • Sodium Carbonate – Alkali
  • Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose – Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Sodium Caseinate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sodium Chloride – Dietary Supplement, Dough Conditioner, Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier, Flavoring Agent, Nutrient
  • Sodium Citrate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant
  • Sodium Cyclamate – Sweetening Agent
  • Sodium Dehydroacetate – Preservative
  • Sodium Diacetate – Antimold Agent, Antirope Agent, Preservative, Sequestrant
  • Sodium Dihydrogen Citrate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant
  • Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant
  • Sodium DL-Malate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Seasoning Agent
  • Sodium Erythorbate – Antioxidant, Preservative
  • Sodium Ferric Pyrophosphate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Sodium Ferrocyanide – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Sodium Fumarate – Acid, Acidifier, Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Seasoning Agent
  • Sodium Gluconate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient, Sequestrant, Yeast Food
  • Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate – Alkali, Buffer, Leavening Agent, Neutralizing Agent
  • Sodium Hydrogen DL-Malate – Buffer, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Neutralizing Agent
  • Sodium Hydrogen Sulfite – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Sodium Hydroxide – Alkali
  • Sodium Hydroxide Solution – Alkali
  • Sodium Hypophosphite – Antioxidant, Preservative
  • Sodium L(+)-Tartrate – Sequestrant, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent
  • Sodium Lactate (Solution) – Antioxidant Synergist, Bodying Agent, Bulking Agent, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent
  • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate – Surface-Active Agent, Wetting Agent
  • Sodium Metabisulfite – Antimicrobial Agent, Antioxidant, Bleaching Agent, Oxidizing Agent, Preservative
  • Sodium Metaphosphate, Insoluble – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Sequestrant, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer, Whipping Agent
  • Sodium Nitrate – Antimicrobial Agent, Color Fixative, Preservative
  • Sodium Nitrite – Antimicrobial Agent, Color Fixative, Preservative
  • Sodium O-Phenylphenol – Preservative
  • Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic – Buffer, Dietary Supplement, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Nutrient, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer, Whipping Agent
  • Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic – Buffer, Dietary Supplement, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Nutrient, Whipping Agent
  • Sodium Phosphate, Tribasic – Buffer, Dietary Supplement, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Nutrient, Whipping Agent
  • Sodium Polyphosphates, Glassy – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Sequestrant, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer, Whipping Agent
  • Sodium Potassium Tartrate – , Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant
  • Sodium Propionate – Antimicrobial Agent, Antimold Agent, Antirope Agent, Preservative
  • Sodium Pyrophosphate – Buffer, Dietary Supplement, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Nutrient, Whipping Agent
  • Sodium Saccharin – Nonnutritive Sweetener, Sugar Substitute, Sweetening Agent
  • Sodium Sesquicarbonate – Alkali, Buffer, Neutralizing Agent
  • Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate Dough Conditioner, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sodium Stearyl Fumarate – Dough Conditioner
  • Sodium Sulfate – Component in the Manufacture of Other Food-Grade Additives
  • Sodium Sulfite – Antimicrobial Agent, Antioxidant, Preservative
  • Sodium Tartrate – Sequestrant
  • Sodium Thiocyanate – Antimicrobial Agent, Preservative
  • Sodium Thiosulfate – Antioxidant, Sequestrant
  • Sodium Trimetaphosphate – Starch-Modifying Agent
  • Sodium Tripolyphosphate – Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Sorbic Acid – Preservative
  • Sorbitan Monolaurate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sorbitan Monooleate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sorbitan Monopalmitate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sorbitan Monostearate – Defoaming Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sorbitan Tristearate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sorbitol – Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Sequestrant, Sweetening Agent, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Sorbitol Sodium – Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Sorbitol Solution – Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Sequestrant
  • Sorbitol Syrup – Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Sequestrant, Sweetening Agent, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Spearmint Oil – Agent
  • Spice Oleoresins – Flavoring Agent
  • Spike Lavender Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Stannous Chloride – Antioxidant
  • Starch Acetate – Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Starch Sodium – Octenylsuccinate Binder, Filler, Gelling Agent, Plasticizer, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Stearic Acid – Antisticking Agent, Component in the Manufacture of Other Food-Grade, Additives, Defoaming Agent, Lubricant, Release Agent
  • Stearyl Citrate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Sequestrant, Whipping Agent
  • Stearyl Monoglyceridyl Citrate – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Stearyl Tartrate – Flour Treatment Agent
  • Succinic Acid – Buffer, General Purpose Additive, Neutralizing Agent
  • Succinylated Monoglycerides – Dough Conditioner, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sucroglyceriddes – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sucrose Acetate Isobutyrate – Cloud Producing Agent in Non-Alcoholic Beverages, Density Adjusting Agent
  • Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Sulfur Dioxide – Antimicrobial Agent, Antioxidant, Bleaching Agent, Oxidizing Agent, Preservative
  • Sulfuric Acid – Acid, Acidifier
  • Sunset Yellow FC – Color

Food Additives Starting With T

  • Tagetes Extract – Color
  • Talc – Anticaking Agent, Antisticking Agent, Coating Agent, Drying Agent, Dusting Powder, Film Former, Filter Aid, Glaze, Lubricant, Polish, Release Agent, Surface-Finishing Agent, Texture-Modifying Agent, Texturizer
  • Tangerine Oil, Coldpressed – Flavoring Agent
  • Tannic Acid – Clarifying Agent
  • Tara Gum – Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener
  • Tarragon Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Tartaric Acid – Acid, Acidifier, Sequestrant
  • Tartrazine – Color
  • TBHQ – Antioxidant
  • Terpene Resine, Natural – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Terpene Resine, Synthetic – Chewing Gum Base Component
  • Terpineol – Flavoring Agent
  • Terpinyl Acetate – Flavoring Agent
  • Terpinyl Propionate – Flavoring Agent
  • Tertiary Butylhydroquinone – Antioxidant
  • Tetrahydrolinalool – Flavoring Agent
  • Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate – Buffer, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate – Anticaking Agent, Buffer, Drying Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant, Whipping Agent
  • Thaumatin – Flavor Enhancer, Intensifier, Sweetening Agent
  • Thiamin Hydrochloride – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Thiamin Mononitrate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Thiodipropionic Acid – Antioxidant
  • Thyme Oil – Flavoring Agent
  • Titanium Dioxide – Color
  • Tocopherols, Mixed – Antioxidant, Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Toluene – Extraction Solvent
  • Tragacanth – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Tragacanth Gum – Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Trans,Cis-2,6-Nonadienal – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans,Cis-2,6-Nonadienol – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans,Trans-2,4-Decadienal – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans,Trans-2,4-Heptadienal – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans,Trans-2,4-Nonadienal – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans-2-Decen-1-Al – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans-2-Dodecen-1-Al – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans-2-Hexen-1-Al – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans-2-Hexen-1-Ol – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans-2-Nonen-1-Ol – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans-2-Nonenal – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans-2-Octen-1-Al – Flavoring Agent
  • Trans-Anethole – Flavoring Agent
  • Triacetin – Carrier Solvent, Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Solubilizer, Solvent, Vehicle
  • Triammonium Citrate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent
  • Tributyrin – Flavoring Agent
  • Tricalcium Phosphate – Anticaking Agent, Buffer, Drying Agent, Neutralizing Agent
  • Trichloroethylene – Extraction Solvent, Solubilizer, Solvent, Vehicle
  • Trichlorogalactosucrose – Sweetening Agent
  • Triethyl Citrate – Carrier Solvent, Sequestrant
  • Trimagnesium Phosphate – Anticaking Agent, Drying Agent
  • Tripotassium Citrate – Buffer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent
  • Tripotassium Phosphate – Buffer, Emulsion Stabilizer, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant
  • Trisodium Citrate – Buffer, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Trisodium Phosphate – Buffer, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Neutralizing Agent, Sequestrant, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Whipping Agent
  • Trypsin – Enzyme
  • Turmeric – Color
  • Turmeric Oleoresin – Color, Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With U

  • Undecanal – Flavoring Agent
  • Undecyl Alcohol – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With V

  • Valeric Acid – Flavoring Agent
  • Vanillin – Flavoring Agent
  • Vitamin A – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Vitamin B12 – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Vitamin D2 – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Vitamin D3 – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient

Food Additives Starting With W

  • Wintergreen Oil – Flavoring Agent

Food Additives Starting With X

  • Xanthan Gum – Bodying Agent, Bulking Agent, Emulsifier, Foaming Agent, Gelling Agent, Stabilizer, Suspending Agent, Thickener, Whipping Agent
  • Xylitol – Humectant, Moisture-Retaining Agent, Nutritive Sweetener, Sweetening Agent

Food Additives Starting With Y

There are no entries in this category.

Food Additives Starting With Z

  • Zinc Gluconate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Zinc Oxide – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient
  • Zinc Sulfate – Dietary Supplement, Nutrient

Reference: Food Nutrition Identifier, NutritionData.com

What Is MSG? Is It Bad for You?

This is the chemical structure of MSG or monosodium glutamate. MSG is a salt, so it dissociates into ions in water.

This is the chemical structure of MSG or monosodium glutamate. MSG is a salt, so it dissociates into ions in water.

You’ve heard about MSG as an ingredient in food and may have been told to avoid it, yet do you know what the chemical is or where it comes from?

MSG is the acronym for monosodium glutamate, which is a sodium salt of glutamic acid. You’re most likely to encounter MSG in the foods you eat, where it enhances your taste bud’s ability to taste flavor, acting much like ordinary table salt (NaCl). Many people recognize MSG is a flavor enhancing food additive, but what you may not know is that MSG also occurs naturally in many foods.

Where MSG Comes From

Commercially, most MSG results from fermentation of sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses or starch. MSG can exist as a pair of stereoisomers, but only the natural L-glutamate form is found in food and added as a flavoring. Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid, an amino acid, which occurs in foods and in the body. Glutamic acid and its salts are found in hydrolyzed vegetable protein, yeast extract, protein isolate and related substances. Many countries require products to which MSG has been added to be labeled. Further, products containing natural forms of MSG shouldn’t be labeled “No Added MSG” or “No MSG” because the US FDA considers this to be confusing and misleading to consumers.

MSG Health Concerns

Despite suggestions that MSG is responsible for negative health effects, such as headaches, obesity, hyperactivity and linked to food allergies, numerous studies have shown monosodium glutamate to be safe, even in large amounts. However, research also indicates about 1% of the population is sensitive to MSG and may experience symptoms including headache, numbness or tingling, weakness and flushing if a large amount of MSG is ingested at once. Should you avoid it? If you’re one of the people who react to it, yes. Otherwise, you’re probably ingesting it in its natural form without giving it a second thought.

MSG is not as bad as most people think. What should you avoid? Personally, I’d make sure my soy sauce isn’t made from human hair.

How To Make Dry Ice Ice Cream

Cry ice ice cream is bubbly and carbonated, similar to a root beer float. (photo: Joel Kramer)

Cry ice ice cream is bubbly and carbonated, similar to a root beer float. (photo: Joel Kramer)

Have you tried fizzy ice cream? It has the flavor and bubbles of an ice cream float without the soda. It’s an extremely easy recipe to try. It doesn’t even require a freezer; you just need dry ice. I’ve had a recipe for vanilla dry ice ice cream up for a while, but here’s a chocolate recipe, along with a few tips and tricks I learned making the ice cream:

Carbonated Ice Cream Ingredients

  • 2 cups heavy cream
  • 2 cups half and half
  • 1 cup chocolate syrup
  • 1/2 cup sugar
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla
  • 1/8 teaspoon salt
  • dry ice

Make Dry Ice Ice Cream

  1. You’ll get a better texture for your ice cream if you crush your dry ice. The easiest way to do this is to put the dry ice into a paper bag and smash it with a mallet or walk on the bag. The ice crushes easily so you don’t have to get medieval on it.
  2. In a very large bowl, mix all of the ingredients except for the dry ice.
  3. Stir in the dry ice a little at a time. “A little at a time” is the key point here, because if you add a lot of dry ice at once you’ll get mountains of bubbles that will overflow your bowl. The bubbling will continue as long as any dry ice remains.
  4. I actually liked the partly-frozen, partly-bubbly ice cream, but you can continue to add dry ice until you get a solid ice cream. The ice cream will be very cold, so be careful when eating it.
  5. You can store uneaten ice cream in the freezer.

The dry ice sublimates to form carbon dioxide gas. The carbon dioxide is perfectly safe… you drink it in soda all the time. In ice cream carbonation adds a slightly sour flavor, like the taste of seltzer water. The only risks from the recipe are weight gain (not exactly a low-cal, low-fat recipe) and frostbite (use gloves if you plan to handle the dry ice and don’t eat dry ice chunks). If you have leftover dry ice, there are many other projects you can try.

Is Your Dry Ice Pure Enough for Food?

Different Types of Dry Ice

There are different types of dry ice. If you're using dry ice for drinks or recipes, make sure it is food grade. (photo: Richard Wheeler)

There are different types of dry ice. If you’re using dry ice for drinks or recipes, make sure it is food grade. (photo: Richard Wheeler)

You probably know you can drop dry ice in warm water to make fog, but you might not know there are different types of dry ice. Ideally, ‘dry ice’ is just another name for solid carbon dioxide, but it’s like any other chemical in that it may or may not be 100% pure. Some impurities may be harmless while others may be potentially nasty contaminants. You can use pretty much any dry ice to make smoke or fog for a party effect. You want to use food-grade dry ice if you intend to put the dry ice in drinks or are going to use it to freeze foods. Your supplier should be able to tell you whether your dry ice is food-grade or not.

If you add dry ice directly to drinks some of the carbon dioxide will be dissolved in the liquid in much the same way as some carbon dioxide stays in carbonated beverages even after the fizzing has stopped. This will make the drink more acidic than it would be otherwise, which will affect the flavor slightly. If dry ice is added to a pool or hot tub, you’ll want to pay attention to the change in pH because it could impact your water treatment regimen.

Dry ice sinks in water, so it’s fairly easy to avoid direct contact if it’s in a drink or if you are in a pool with it. When nearly all of the dry ice has sublimated, then water ice forms around it. This ice containing a dry ice core will float to the top of the liquid. It’s very cold, so you don’t want to drink it or handle it.

Use Dry Ice To Make a Giant Bubble

You can use any type of dry ice for simple projects. Simply drop it in warm water to make fog. Add a bit of liquid detergent and you can make this giant bubble, which resembles a crystal ball:



Watch a Real Chemistry Cat Play With Dry Ice

Laetrile, Amygdalin, and Vitamin B17

The bioactive chemical found in apple seeds is called amygdalin. This is not the same as Laetrile, which is a processed drug. (Böhringer Friedrich)

The bioactive chemical found in apple seeds is called amygdalin. This is not the same as Laetrile, which is a processed drug. (Böhringer Friedrich)

When I wrote a warning about how eating too many apple seeds or cherry pits could kill you, I had no idea the topic would be considered controversial. In my mind, saying the natural compounds in the plants could be toxic was on par with saying too much iron is toxic… it’s documented fact. Yet, that blog post generated comments about how the seeds are supposedly a cure for cancer or necessary for human nutrition, making me out to be part of some nefarious AMA/government plot. For those of you who think that, let me set the record straight. No one dictates what I write or pays me to present a viewpoint.

Apple seeds, cherry pits, and other seeds from the Prunis family contain a natural substance called amygdalin, which can be enzymatically degraded into glucose, benzaldehyde, and hydrogen cyanide. Hydrogen cyanide is toxic. Here’s the first MSDS I found on hydrogen cyanide when I ran a search, which says ingesting less than 1 mg/kg can kill you. So… that’s bad news for your body, even if there are heathful compounds in the seeds, unless you have the ability to detoxify the cyanide… and you do. If the dose is low enough, you can survive exposure to cyanide just fine, with no ill effects. If the dose is too high, then you’re in trouble. That’s where eating too many of the seeds can kill you. I don’t have an opinion on whether or not eating a small number of the seeds is healthful.

Difference Between Amygdalin, Laetrile, and Vitamin B17

I read that some people use the terms amygdalin, Laetrile, and vitamin B17 interchangeably, but there are sources which distinguish between them. Amygdalin is the substance that occurs naturally in plants. Laetrile is a trade name for a synthesized compound, laevo-mandelonitrile-beta-glucuronoside. This compound is chemically similar to amygdalin, but isn’t the same molecule. I’m not entirely clear on whether B17 is supposed to be amygdalin or Laetrile, but neither compound is recognized as a vitamin. The ‘vitamin’ designation seems to have been part of a marketing ploy by the Mexican clinic that sells Laetrile. I don’t see much information about the natural compound, amygdalin, but there is scientific research that indicates Laetrile does not cure cancer.

To summarize:

  • Laetrile and amygdalin are not the same molecule.
  • Both compounds can be metabolized to produce cyanide in the body. Too much of either compound is toxic.
  • Laetrile has not been shown to cure cancer.
  • There may be health benefits from eating apple seeds or related seeds, but if you eat too many of them, you can get sick.

Comments

(1) Todd Moss says:

Please watch G Edward Griffin’s A World Without Cancer, about Laetrile, on Google video.

(2) Bob Steele says:

You are so right about the ‘natural’ toxins in some seeds. I have read that a thimbleful of apple seeds killed someone. Magnus PYKE wrote a book on food science which refers to the actual poisoning. The man loved apple seeds so his wife collected a thimbleful and gave to him for his birthday – his last birthday it turned out to be. Bob

(3) donpark1 says:

Where did you read this??? Let me guess… you can’t remember. LOL

The author sounds like she is paid by someone. “there is scientific research that indicates Laetrile does not cure cancer.” Only an idiot would print that in a story they wrote… unless they wrote for idiots.

(4) Chris says:

You’re a PHD? Try doing some research on Laetrile / B17 and see how many people disagree with YOUR research that it doesn’t work. You say it’s proven it doesn’t work because the so-called experts say so…so I guess you believe that radiation and chemo actually is a good method because they say so. Why don’t you ask a doctor how many people survive cancer using the “preferred method” of treatment. Have you spoken to a doctor that does Laetrile treatments, Answer no. See, some doctors think vitamins/minerals should be the preferred method. You think it’s possible that the drug companies/Gov would suppress this info…no that’s impossible right? There’s a reason why the drug companies have beds inside the capital building. Look how many kids/people are taking meds these days. Get your head out of your a$$.

(5) Alex says:

You go boy!

(6) David Duncan says:

What is a poison? – ANYTHING taken into the body in sufficient quantities within a certain time to do bodily harm.
Apple and cherry seeds contain vitamin B17. Vitamin B17 is less toxic than –
sugar, salt and aspirin –
and a darn sight less toxic than chemotherapy.

(7) gwen says:

I was a nurse for many years. I NEVER once saw a patient survive who had chemo from cancer that had spread throughout the body.

I got out of nursing. When I tried natural god given product that cured my skin cancer, when my surgeon failed twice, I did further research.

It’s true. Natural is better.

Ever wonder why the hunzakuts don’t have a trace of cancer or disease and live long lives? Hmmmmm….

http://www.jesus-is-savior.com/land_of_hunza.htm

(8) Marissa says:

“……..but if you eat too many of them, you can get sick and may die.”

I eat an apple a day, skin, seeds and all. I also eat 10 apricot kernels between meals every day for the past 3 years. hhhmmmmmm.

(9) Eric Juvastoel says:

I eat on a dayli basis 100 to 150 apricot seeds and have done so since late May 2011. Still alive  Mirracle or is BIG PHARMA try to scare us from taking natures own medicine ?
Amygdalin can not be patented and can not make big $$$$$$ !

(10) Antonio says:

Eric,

Do you chew the apricot seeds?

Thanks,

Antonio

(11) Tomas says:

Did you also know that when there “final” is cure for cancer the American Cancer Society is required to disband. They receive the most donations than any other charity. With that said do you think they are eager to tell the truth?! Think about all the jobs that would be lost, fact is today there are more people making money from cancer than dying from it.

Genesis 1:29 And God said, Behold I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth , and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.

Think about it.

(12) Ken says:

Our Ms. Anne Marie needs to confine herself to a chem lab and ignore what she herself finds to be absolutely true–no matter the clear benefit (“benefit”, being interchangeable with “profit loss” in this case). Clumsily worded, but Holy Christ stop parroting the marketeers: not recognized as, et al, has FDA written all over it.

And, duh? You wholly neglected to say EXACTLY WHERE and WHY and HOW the compound is released ONLY in the presence of a chemical that ONLY TUMOR CELLS have in abundance. Do you think we’re complete idiots?

Take more than 20 mins to research a subject mkay? Signed, 70-80 cherry pit centers or 10-15 apricot pit centers a day after being diagnosed with another brain tumor, 11 months ago.

You may as well work at a fast-food joint to HELP get people sick. You’d do less harm.

“When I wrote a warning about how eating too many apple seeds or cherry pits could kill you, I had no idea the topic would be considered controversial.”, shines a spotlight upon your professional and moral integrity.

Resign.

(13) jason says:

well it is true vitamin b17 does kill cancer i just found out with my mums melanoma eating 45 seeds a day killed off to tumours the size of eggs in 2 weeks that were on her leg but remember the apricot seeds are only part of the jigsaw puzzle its the diet as well pancreatic enzymes is the secret as well all u drug companies out there would have to be getting so worried because every one is finding out about this i hope the cancer industry get wiped out its all to do with money

(14) nondnabased says:

if there were a cure or a good prevention for cancer billions of profit $$$ will b lost……. think about that author. there are three types of lies. LIES,LIES and STATISTICS……

(15) Linda says:

How many apple seeds a day is it safe to eat, and do you chew them, crush them or swallow them whole. Thanks for any info.

(16) Eric Juvastoel says:

I eat 100 / 150 a day and I feel fine  and yes i CHEW them.

(17) Danny says:

Mum sent home with terminal cancer. We opted for the B17 route instead of chemo. Gave her 3 (500mg) laetrile tablets per day for 4 months. She has never looked better, has never experienced a single side effect and she is 83 years old.

I wouldn’t give cancer research a dime of my money. Crooks!!

November 3, 2011 at 6:36 pm

(18) Jean says:

Where did you get her tablets??? I Need help

(19) David says:

Get the book: Cancer Step outside the box!

(20) Jim says:

The best comment I have ever read on this whole topic is from teh Anti-Cancer book. “It is difficult to get someone to understand something, when, their salary is so dependent on them not understanding it.”

(22) mohammad says:

i am surprised of a man who loved apple seeds died from it as bob steele mentioned ,unless it was his first love first try witch is impossible .since bob steele knows the dead man ,i appreciate if he mentions if this man used apple seeds before and why he did not die earlier

(23) Hilary says:

If you would like to have the beneficial elements of Vitamin B17 without the most definite hazards which Anne Marie wrote of above, you might like to add the following foods to your diet and will provide you with more than adequate quantities to act as an alternative to stone fruit seeds.

Broad Beans – 4oz (100g), fresh or frozen but cooked.

Chilli con beanies – made with red kidney beans, fresh bell peppers and all the other things you might want to have with your regular, home-made chilli. Use one 500g (1lb) can between two people, or cook the kidney beans with some raw onion, a little garlic and some dried herbs in it’s own can juice for 20 minutes on a simmer heat, then drain and mash and have on wholemeal toast for breakfast, half the can each (for two) or cook it and refrigerate and reheat next day for breakfast in the same way.

Find wild blackberries during the fall, eat them as you pick them and take a big container. You can freeze them in airtight containers and eat them til your heart is content. Cultivated blackberries do not have the same vitamin content.

Grow your own alfalfa – eat the leaves and sprouts in sandwiches instead of salad, or have an alfalfa salad with some other nice tasty things like tomato and onions and grated carrot. Make sure you buy PURE alfalfa seeds and tend it yourself or someone you trust.

Don’t snack on peanuts, buy macadamia nuts instead, a couple of ounces are lovely with your aperitif before dinner.

Eat some lentils two or three times a week instead of another vegetable.

Bamboo sprouts are gorgeous and very fresh tasting and extremely good for you.

So are mung bean sprouts.

If you live in FL make the most of cassava as a vegetable and as an ingredient in cakes and other sweet/savoury treats.

All of the above have amygdalin in reasonably high quantities and won’t harm you.

Good health and bon appetit.

(24) paul Zenchuk says:

a number of people have become cancer free after ingesting apricot pits. One guy was thrown in jail over it. There are testimonials by cancer survivors on the internet. You knowledge seems very limited.

(25) Estelle says:

I’ve eaten 5 or more apples (including their seeds) per day for over a decade now. No signs of poisoning in sight. I must be highly resistant to cyanide???

(26) danny says:

Thanks to authors such as G. Edward Griffin and his book World Without Cancer, also Tanya Harter Pierce and her book Outsmart Your Cancer, we are learning the truth! And when we have finally reached a critical mass those within those criminal organizations such as the ACS and those liars within the FDA should be concerned. They have played the largest role in the genocide within the world. Millions needlessly dying horrible deaths. A reading of the history put forth by these authors and many others shows the complicit criminality engaged in all for money. Every day i exist i spread the word by telling people of these books. 1 out of 3 or 2 out of 3 are serious numbers. Reading and learning is easy and thankfully to groups like these others can learn to protect themselves. Let’s all resolve to spread the word every day and sink the knife into the cancer industry!

(27) Jason M says:

Ms. Helmenstine Ph.D.,

I’ve always been a firm believer that the burden of proof rest upon he or she that alleges. Unfortunately I don’t have 100 million dollars to ‘prove’ vitamin B17 works. So though I can’t prove its effectiveness or speak of its safety, I can, however, show you thousands of testimonies (Google). I simply can not excuse all those testimonies as being some sort of placebo effect. And as far as safety is concerned…I can not recall ever hearing or reading about anyone dying of cyanide poisoning as a direct result of taking B17 in the form of apple seeds, apricot seeds, pills, etc.
I certainly hope after viewing the overwhelming responses to your post that it will motivate you to taking a second look at the integrity of the FDA as well as PHARMA’s true motivation$. As the others have already stated, start by watching A World Without Cancer by G Edward Griffin. It’s a real eye opener!

Thanks,

Jason

(28) Clint Mc says:

have you ever noticed your dog eating strange plants, grass even? what about chimps in Africa that will crack open the fruits just to eat the seeds? do you know why they do that? bigger question, if the chemical in these specific plants that animals eat are ‘poisonous’ then why don’t they die?

I use to live on a farm and for a few years the grass started to die, so we planted a different species of grass instead… not soon after all the cattle started to die of cancer… we got a local vet out and asked about the old and new grass we used… he found out that the old grass was high in B-17.

(29) Anonymous says:

Yes, the illuminati does pay you for this

(30) just a scientist says:

Tell me how to get the B-17 from a pip and I will check if it works coz I have such an opportunity. It is very easy for me to check it, but I don’t know how to get the B-17 in order to add it to the cell culture.

(31) Jerabek says:

Yes, its very BAD for you.I have once eaten 3 doz seeds (apricot+ plus ++ in ONE day. and I had a “little bad taste” in my mouth., over one yr ago. I must be different to others in the clinical study s…also my wife did the same with” No side effects”. We in Australia be must be different to the rest of USA?

(32) Roger says:

I would like to enlighten all you quacks out there about the REAL effect apricot seeds have on your body when you ingest (eat) them. The amygdalin, when ingested, combines with enzymes in your gut that convert the amygdalin to CYANIDE. Your liver can process a small amount of cyanide but when higher levels are built up, the toxicity becomes too much for the liver to deal with and DEATH occurs.

My wacked-out brother had my 90 year old mother eating 12 seeds per day. Her liver functions ( ALT and AST ) had climb to abnormal levels and she was showing symptoms consistent with cyanide toxicity.

I insisted she undergo a test for cyanide poison ( ABG-Arterial Blood Gas). The test results were POSITIVE for cyanide !! We halted the seeds immediately and her overall health has improved.

For any of you out there that insist on this quackery, please do yourselves a favor and have your cyanide levels checked. you have nothing to loose and can hopefully come to your senses before your cyanide level reaches a fatal level.

(33) Laetrile v. Cancer says:

@ Roger

Roger why don’t have you have a seat next to the author and watch the big boys show how laetrile kills CANCER, and how this will stop the medical industrial complex from having millions of victims that can be cured…

Your’e a shill Roger – and by the way, if you ROAST the Apricot seeds as per INSTRUCTION – you would’ve found out that it stops the stomach from becoming upset for some… you go your work cut out– obviously your still trying to comprehend any good common sense, let alone cures for cancer!

Soy Sauce Made From Human Hair

Soy sauce often does not contain any soy beans. (Melissa Doroquez)

Soy sauce often does not contain any soy beans. (Melissa Doroquez)

The news services sometimes include unusual stories that relate to chemistry. For example, Snopes collected a series of news reports about the use of potentially carcinogenic soy sauce made using human hair instead of soy beans. I learned that the amino acids in human hair can be used to make a condiment with a flavor similar to that of the usual soy variety. Making soy sauce with hair apparently has been in practice since World War II. The cancer-causing chemicals don’t derive from the human hair, but rather from the chemicals used to process hair to make it into food.  I had been craving Chinese food, but I may go for pizza instead now. Ick.

Soy Sauce Isn’t Really Made from Soy

Also, you might want to check the ingredient list on your soy sauce. Even though it’s unlikely your sauce contains hair, most soy sauce in those little packets from Chinese take-out restaurants is not really made using soybeans. An example list of ingredients is: corn syrup, water, salt, caramel color, vegetable protein, and sodium benzoate. The vegetable protein may or may not include soy. It’s common for a grain to be included, such as wheat. The soyless soy sauce tends to be used more for Chinese food than Japanese food.