Category Archives: Chemistry Notes

Learn chemistry. Here you will find a collection of chemistry notes, projects, worksheets, and labs.

Food That Glows in Black Light

Bananas are one of the foods that glow under black light. Only the margin of the spots glows. (endolith)

Bananas are one of the foods that glow under black light. Only the margin of the spots glows. (endolith)

Do you want food that glows in the dark? With the exception of certain types of phosphorescent fungi, edibles don’t tend to glow. However, there is some food that glows under a black light. The black light emits ultraviolet radiation, which excites atoms and causes them to release fluorescent light. Fluorescence is a fast process, so food only glows when the black light is on.

Here is a list of foods that glow and the color of the light that is produced. Tonic water glows the brightest. You can use it in place of water in certain recipes to make foods light up. Try it in white frosting, gelatin, and drinks. You can also add a bright glow to food by mixing in vitamin B2.

  • tonic water (bright blue because of the quinine that is an ingredient)
  • cooking oil (yellow to greenish-yellow)
  • olive oil (orange)
  • eggs (shell is dark violet-red, egg white is bright pale yellow)
  • honey (golden yellow)
  • pineapple (vivid blue fruit, mostly reflected light, outside doesn’t glow)
  • ketchup (yellow – not bright)
  • milk (pale yellow)
  • vanilla ice cream (yellow)
  • yogurt (yellow for vanilla, possibly pink for flavored)
  • banana (blue ring around spots, some color if you cut the banana)
  • sliced lettuce or other greens (dull red from the chlorophyll)
  • sliced peppers (dull red)
  • sliced squash (yellow)
  • some energy drinks (if they have enough B vitamins)

Foods That Reflect Black Light

Most white foods (except for egg whites) don’t glow or fluoresce under black light, but they do reflect back the light so they appear bright blue or purple. Examples of reflective foods include:

  • marshmallows
  • white bread
  • pasta
  • rice
  • potato chips
  • tortilla chips

If a food doesn’t glow, consider serving it on a white doily or fluorescent plastic plate. Fluorescent plastic cups are available in many colors. Most clear plastic has a blue glowing edge under black light. You can also decorate using glow sticks. Just make sure they stay sealed!

See Glowing Food in Action

Take a look at people’s reactions to glowing food. As you might guess, adding vitamins or tonic water to food can affect the flavor. Food usually glows green or blue, which might not seem that appetizing. It’s fun though!

Scientific Method Word Search Puzzle

This scientific method word search puzzle contains terms relating to the scientific method.

Scientific Method Word SearchThe terms can be found by searching vertically, horizontally and diagonally. Download the PDF and have fun trying to find the scientific method words.

Need a little help finding a word? If you get stuck, the solution is below or download the PDF of the solved word search.

Scientific Method Word Search Solution

Acid Formulas Worksheet

Worksheets are a great way to practice new concepts. This Acid Formulas Worksheet contains the common names of ten different acids. You just have to supply the correct chemical formula for each acid.

This acid formulas worksheet is available as a PDF for download.Answer sheet for Acid Formulas WorksheetThe answer key is also available as a PDF download, or just save the image above.

For quick reference, the answers are as follows:

  1. Hydrofluoric – HF
  2. Nitric – HNO3
  3. Sulfuric – H2SO4
  4. Phosphoric – H3PO4
  5. Carbonic – H2CO3
  6. Acetic – HC2H3O2
  7. Oxalic – H2C2O4
  8. Boric – H3BO3
  9. Silicic – H2SiO3
  10. Chloric – HClO3

Enjoy!

Wedge and Dash Notation for 3D Chemical Structures

The wedge and dash notation is used to represent three-dimensional structures of molecules using a two-dimensional surface, like a sheet of paper or a computer screen. This type of structure is also called wedge-dash notation or wedges and dash notation. It is commonly used in organic chemistry, though you may see it any time a molecule structure is given.

Using wedge and dash notation, solid lines (sticks) represent chemical bonds in the plane of the surface. Black wedges represent chemical bonds coming toward you, while dashed lines are for bonds that extend back behind the surface.

Using wedge and dash notation, solid lines (sticks) represent chemical bonds in the plane of the surface. Black wedges represent chemical bonds coming toward you, while dashed lines are for bonds that extend back behind the surface.

Interpreting a Wedge and Dash Chemical Structure

There are three components to know to read wedge and dash notation:

  • solid lines – Solid lines or “sticks” are used for the backbone of the chemical structure. Atoms and chemical bonds exist with the same plane. Think of them as lying in the paper or screen, lined up with one another.
  • wedges – Solid triangular wedges represent chemical bonds and groups that are coming out of the page, toward you.
  • dashes – Dashed triangular shapes represent chemical bonds and groups extending back behind the page.

Both wedges and dashes are wedge-shaped and denote bonds in a plane other than that of the page, but it’s pretty easy to tell them apart.

Element Non Examples

Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is a good element non example. (Luke Peterson)

Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is a good element non example. (Luke Peterson)

Are confused by what is and is not an element? It’s easy to find element examples. This is a list of element non examples.

What Is an Element?

To know what an element is not, it’s helpful to know what one is. The list of elements is rather short (only 118). Anything not on this list is an element non example! Elements are the smallest particles of matter that have distinct properties and cannot be further divided using any chemical means. A material made up of an element consists of only one type of atom. Atoms, in turn, are characterized by the number of protons they possess. So, for a substance to be an element, all of its atoms must have the same number of protons. Examples of elements include hydrogen, lithium, nickel, and radium.

Element Examples

In addition to single atoms, there are elements made of atoms bonded to each other. Examples of elements include:

  • helium (He)
  • ozone (O3)
  • chlorine (Cl2)
  • hydrogen (H2)
  • oxygen (O2)
  • diamond (pure carbon)
  • diamond set in graphite (still pure carbon)
  • iron skillet (Fe)

What Is Not an Element?

If you don’t see it listed on the periodic table, it’s not an element! Element non examples include all compounds, which are substances made when two different types of atoms form a chemical bond. Any material made by mixing elements is no longer an element. Anytime you see a chemical formula with more than one element symbol in it, it’s an element non example.

Element Non Examples

Specific examples of non examples include:

  • water (H2O)
  • carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • a computer
  • paper
  • steel
  • brass
  • coffee
  • light
  • heat
  • a person
  • a tree

List of Electron Configurations of Elements

Fluroine Atom

Electron configuration of a fluorine atom.

This list of electron configurations of elements contains all the elements in increasing order of atomic number.

To save room, the configurations are in noble gas shorthand. This means part of the electron configuration has been replaced with the element symbol of the noble gas symbol. Look up the electronic configuration of that noble gas and include that value before the rest of the configuration. This table is available to download as a PDF to use as a study sheet.

 NUMBER ELEMENTELECTRON CONFIGURATION
1Hydrogen1s1
2Helium1s2
3Lithium[He]2s1
4Beryllium[He]2s2
5Boron[He]2s22p1
6Carbon[He]2s22p2
7Nitrogen[He]2s22p3
8Oxygen[He]2s22p4
9Fluorine[He]2s22p5
10Neon[He]2s22p6
11Sodium[Ne]3s1
12Magnesium[Ne]3s2
13Aluminum[Ne]3s23p1
14Silicon[Ne]3s23p2
15Phosphorus[Ne]3s23p3
16Sulfur[Ne]3s23p4
17Chlorine[Ne]3s23p5
18Argon[Ne]3s23p6
19Potassium[Ar]4s1
20Calcium[Ar]4s2
21Scandium[Ar]3d14s2
22Titanium[Ar]3d24s2
23Vanadium[Ar]3d34s2
24Chromium[Ar]3d54s1
25Manganese[Ar]3d54s2
26Iron[Ar]3d64s2
27Cobalt[Ar]3d74s2
28Nickel[Ar]3d84s2
29Copper[Ar]3d104s1
30Zinc[Ar]3d104s2
31Gallium[Ar]3d104s24p1
32Germanium[Ar]3d104s24p2
33Arsenic[Ar]3d104s24p3
34Selenium[Ar]3d104s24p4
35Bromine[Ar]3d104s24p5
36Krypton[Ar]3d104s24p6
37Rubidium[Kr]5s1
38Strontium[Kr]5s2
39Yttrium[Kr]4d15s2
40Zirconium[Kr]4d25s2
41Niobium[Kr]4d45s1
42Molybdenum[Kr]4d55s1
43Technetium[Kr]4d55s2
44Ruthenium[Kr]4d75s1
45Rhodium[Kr]4d85s1
46Palladium[Kr]4d10
47Silver[Kr]4d105s1
48Cadmium[Kr]4d105s2
49Indium[Kr]4d105s25p1
50Tin[Kr]4d105s25p2
51Antimony[Kr]4d105s25p3
52Tellurium[Kr]4d105s25p4
53Iodine[Kr]4d105s25p5
54Xenon[Kr]4d105s25p6
55Cesium[Xe]6s1
56Barium[Xe]6s2
57Lanthanum[Xe]5d16s2
58Cerium[Xe]4f15d16s2
59Praseodymium[Xe]4f36s2
60Neodymium[Xe]4f46s2
61Promethium[Xe]4f56s2
62Samarium[Xe]4f66s2
63Europium[Xe]4f76s2
64Gadolinium[Xe]4f75d16s2
65Terbium[Xe]4f96s2
66Dysprosium[Xe]4f106s2
67Holmium[Xe]4f116s2
68Erbium[Xe]4f126s2
69Thulium[Xe]4f136s2
70Ytterbium[Xe]4f146s2
71Lutetium[Xe]4f145d16s2
72Hafnium[Xe]4f145d26s2
73Tantalum[Xe]4f145d36s2
74Tungsten[Xe]4f145d46s2
75Rhenium[Xe]4f145d56s2
76Osmium[Xe]4f145d66s2
77Iridium[Xe]4f145d76s2
78Platinum[Xe]4f145d96s1
79Gold[Xe]4f145d106s1
80Mercury[Xe]4f145d106s2
81Thallium[Xe]4f145d106s26p1
82Lead[Xe]4f145d106s26p2
83Bismuth[Xe]4f145d106s26p3
84Polonium[Xe]4f145d106s26p4
85Astatine[Xe]4f145d106s26p5
86Radon[Xe]4f145d106s26p6
87Francium[Rn]7s1
88Radium[Rn]7s2
89Actinium[Rn]6d17s2
90Thorium[Rn]6d27s2
91Protactinium[Rn]5f26d17s2
92Uranium[Rn]5f36d17s2
93Neptunium[Rn]5f46d17s2
94Plutonium[Rn]5f67s2
95Americium[Rn]5f77s2
96Curium[Rn]5f76d17s2
97Berkelium[Rn]5f97s2
98Californium[Rn]5f107s2
99Einsteinium[Rn]5f117s2
100Fermium[Rn]5f127s2
101Mendelevium[Rn]5f137s2
102Nobelium[Rn]5f147s2
103Lawrencium[Rn]5f147s27p1
104Rutherfordium[Rn]5f146d27s2
105Dubnium*[Rn]5f146d37s2
106Seaborgium*[Rn]5f146d47s2
107Bohrium*[Rn]5f146d57s2
108Hassium*[Rn]5f146d67s2
109Meitnerium*[Rn]5f146d77s2
110Darmstadtium*[Rn]5f146d97s1
111Roentgenium*[Rn]5f146d107s1
112Copernium*[Rn]5f146d107s2
113Nihonium*[Rn]5f146d107s27p1
114Flerovium*[Rn]5f146d107s27p2
115Moscovium*[Rn]5f146d107s27p3
116Livermorium*[Rn]5f146d107s27p4
117Tennessine*[Rn]5f146d107s27p5
118Oganesson*[Rn]5f146d107s27p6

 

Values denoted by an asterisk are predictions based on periodic table trends. Actual configurations have not been verified.

List of Elements PDF – Element Names

Have you ever needed a list of the chemical elements? I was surprised how often I have needed to print this list myself. I used this list as a checklist when I made the periodic table element cells and when I made the Element Word Search Puzzle.  I’ve used it so often, I thought I’d share my list of elements in PDF form.

Alphabetical List of ElementsDownload the List of Elements PDF and print out your own copy. The list fits on a single sheet of paper and arranged alphabetically in three columns. Another alternative is to click the image above. It is a PNG image of the contents of the PDF file.

I hope it becomes as useful to you as it is to me.