Tag Archives: elements

Americium Facts – Element 95 or Am

This is a disk of americium-241 viewed under a microscope. Bionerd, Creative Commons License

This is a disk of americium-241 viewed under a microscope. Bionerd, Creative Commons License

Element Name: Americium

Atomic Number: 95

Symbol: Am

Atomic Weight: 243.0614

Electron Configuration: [Rn] 5f7 7s2

Atomic Number: 95

Element Classification: Radioactive Rare Earth Element (Actinide Series)

Discovered By: G.T.Seaborg, R.A.James, L.O.Morgan, A.Ghiorso

Discovery Date: 1945 (United States)

Name Origin: named for the American continent, similar to the naming of the element europium.

Density (g/cc): 13.67

Melting Point (K): 1267

Boiling Point (K): 2880

Appearance: silvery-white, radioactive metal

Atomic Radius (pm): 173

Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 20.8

Ionic Radius: 92 (+4e) 107 (+3e)

Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): (10.0)

Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 238.5

Pauling Negativity Number: 1.3

Oxidation States: 6, 5, 4, 3

References: Los Alamos National Laboratory (2001), Crescent Chemical Company (2001), Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry (1952), CRC Handbook of Chemistry & Physics (18th Ed.)


The Element Coronium and the Sun

Coronium is a name given to an element scientists thought they had discovered in the Sun's corona. (Anne Helmenstine)

Coronium is a name given to an element scientists thought they had discovered in the Sun’s corona. (Anne Helmenstine)

Have you ever heard of the element named coronium or newtonium? Coronium is the name given to an element that 19th century scientists believed might exist in the corona of the sun. Researchers observed an unidentifiable green line in the spectra of the solar corona, which is visible during a total solar eclipse. Charles Augustus Young and William Harkness independently observed a green emission line at 530.3 nm during the August 7, 1869 solar eclipse. This line did not correspond to the emission spectra of any known element, so the name coronium was proposed as the source of the color.

Dmitri Mendeleev, known for developing the periodic table, proposed the name newtonium rather than coronium for this element. Mendeleev believed newtonium was an element slightly lighter than hydrogen. We now know hydrogen, containing a single proton, is the simplest element, but atomic structure was not understood in Mendeleev’s time.

It wasn’t until the 1930s that  Walter Grotrian and Bengt Edlén determined the mysterious green spectral line observed during solar eclipses was due not to some unknown element, but to highly charged iron, Fe13+. Highly charged metal ions are responsible for other previously unidentified lines in the solar spectra, too.

Periodic Table Christmas Tree

Chemistry up your Christmas celebration with this periodic table Christmas tree.2016 Chemis-tree

This Christmas tree contains all 118 elements of the periodic table including the proposed names of elements 113, 115, 117, and 118. Each tile contains the element’s number, symbol, and name.

Wear Your Own Chemis-tree (or enjoy a coffee)

Chemistry Tree Tee

Chemistry Tree Tee

We’ve teamed up with Redbubble to offer this graphic as a print, poster or sticker. If you’d prefer, there are t-shirts and hoodies to wear and coffee cups to drink from. Check out these items along with a variety of other items on our Redbubble product page. Click the Available products button to see other items with this graphic.


Manganese Facts – Mn or Element Atomic Number 25

Element 25 - Manganese

Element 25 – Manganese

Manganese is a metal that is atomic number 25 on the periodic table with the element symbol Mn. Here’s a collection of interesting and useful manganese facts, including its history, properties, uses, and atomic data.

Interesting Manganese Facts

  • Manganese exists in native form (free in nature), but it’s more commonly found in the minerals pyrolusite and rhodochrosite. It’s often found with iron. Manganese nodules occur on the ocean floor that are about 24% manganese.
  • Mn is the 12th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, accounting for 0.1% of its weight (360 parts per million). Its abundance in the solar system is 10 parts per million, by weight. The average person has 10-20 mg of manganese, with about 25% in bones and the rest evenly distributed throughout the body.
  • The name “manganese” comes from the Latin word magnes, which means magnet. This refers to the magnetic properties of the magnesium oxide mineral pyrolusite.  Manganese also derives from the Italian word manganese, which is a corrupt form of the word magnesia.
  • Manganese is usually paramagnetic (not magnetic), but special treatment can cause it to become ferromagnetic.
  • Pure manganese is a transition metal that looks much like iron, although a bit more gray. It is harder than iron and extremely brittle. Like other transition metals, manganese is chemically reactive. It resists corrosion, but slowly decomposes in water.
  • The first scientist to isolate manganese from the ore pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) was Johann Gottlieb Gahn in 1774. He obtained the pure metal by reducing manganese dioxide with carbon. Before its purification, manganese had been recognized as a new element by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Torber Olof Bergman, and other scientists.

    Pure Manganese Element (alchemist-hp)

    Pure Manganese Element (alchemist-hp)

  • Manganese dioxide was used as a pigment by ancient man. Cave paintings found in Lascaux, France dating back 16,000 years feature black images made using the compound. There’s evidence the black pigment may have been used as a cosmetic by Neanderthals 50,000 years ago.
  • Around 90% of manganese that is mined is used in the production of steel, where it improves the strength, stiffness, and resistance of the metal. Manganese is also used in pigments, to add a purple color to clear glass, and to decolorize green glass. Manganese is alloyed with aluminum. It’s also used to produce ferromagnetic alloys. Organo-manganese compounds may be added to gasoline to increase its octane rating.
  • Manganese is responsible for the characteristic violet color of the gemstone amethyst.

    Manganese Atom

    Manganese Atom

  • Manganese is non-toxic in small amounts, although inhaling its dust can cause harmful effects. Over-exposure to manganese or manganese dioxide causes a condition called manganism, which causes symptoms similar to those of Parkinson’s disease. Its an essential trace mineral in nutrition, since manganese is needed for mitochondria to function in plant and animal cells. In humans, it’s also needed for our bodies to use vitamin B1. Manganese is essential for plants to perform photosynthesis.
  • Manganese is found in four allotropic forms. The alpha form is stable at normal temperatures. The gamma form is soft and can be cut. The gamma form changes into the alpha form under ordinary temperature and pressure conditions.
  • Like other transition metals, manganese displays multiple oxidation states. The most stable state is +2 (pale pink in water), although +4 (black or brown), +7 (purple), and +6 (green) are also common.
  • Natural manganese consists of one stable isotope, manganese-55. At least 21 isotopes have been produced, with mass numbers from 46 to 66.

Manganese Atomic Data

Element NameManganese
 Element Symbol Mn
 Element Number 25
 Group Group 7, d-block (transition metal)
 Atomic Weight 54.938044(3)
 Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d5 4s2
 Phase solid
 Melting Point 1519 K (1246 °C, 2275 °F)
 Boiling Point 2334 K (2061 °C, 3742 °F)
 Density (near room temperature) 7.21 g/cm3
 Oxidation States 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3
 Crystal Structure body-centered cubic
 Magnetic Ordering paramagnetic

Density of Elements of the Periodic Table

Density of Elements Periodic Table

Density of Elements Periodic Table

Here is a table listing the density of elements of the periodic table. The values are for density around room temperature, except as noted. Elements are listed alphabetically. Keep in mind, density depends on temperature, pressure, and the allotrope (form) of the element, so true values may be a bit different. More of the heavier elements have not been synthesized in large enough amounts for experimental data to be taken, but predictions are available for these elements. All 118 elements are listed in this table.

Element NameDensity (g/cm3)
Argon1.784 (at 0°C)
Arsenic 5.727
Astatine6.35 (predicted)
Bohrium37.1 (predicted)
Carbon2.26 (for graphite)
Chlorine3.214 (at 0°C)
Copernicium 23.7 (predicted)
Darmstadtium 34.8 (predicted)
Dubnium 29.3 (predicted)
Einsteinium 8.84
Fermium 9.7 (predicted)
Flerovium 14 (predicted)
Fluorine1.696 (at 0°C)
Francium 2.8 – 3.0 (extrapolated)
Hassium 41 (predicted)
Helium0.1785 (at 0°C)
Hydrogen0.0899 (at 0°C)
Krypton3.75 (at 0°C)
Lawencium 15.6 – 16.6 (predicted)
Livermorium 12.9 (predicted)
Meitnerium 37.4 (predicted)
Mendelevium 10.37 (predicted)
Moscovium 13.5 (predicted)
Neon0.9 (at 0°C)
Nihonium 16 (predicted)
Nitrogen1.251 (at 0°C)
Nobelium 9.94 (predicted)
Oganesson 4.9 – 5.1 (predicted)
Oxygen1.429 (at 0°C)
Radon9.73 (at 0°C)
Roentgenium 28.7 (predicted)
Rutherfordium 23.2 (predicted)
Seaborgium 35.0 (predicted)
Tennessine 7.1 – 7.3 (predicted)
Xenon5.9 (at 0°C)

Most Dense Element and Least Dense Element

The element with the least density or lightest element is the gas hydrogen, with a density of 0.0899 g/cm3 The element with the highest density is usually cited as the metal osmium (22.61 g/cm3), although under certain circumstances iridium can have a higher density (22.65 g/cm3). Note some of the more recently synthesized elements may have higher densities, but this has not been confirmed yet.

References: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Wolfram Research, Inc.

Colorful 2017 Periodic Table with 118 Element Names

2016 is the first year people can use a periodic table with all 118 blocks filled with element names and symbols! Here’s a new colorful periodic table you can print, to make handouts, posters, or study guides.

Colorful Periodic Table with White Background

Here’s the table with the “white” background. Actually, it’s transparent, so if you print it on colored paper or fabric, the color will show through.

Colorful Periodic Table with 118 Elements

Colorful Periodic Table with 118 Elements

Colorful Periodic Table with Black Background

Here’s the black background version of the table:

Periodic Table with 118 Elements - Dark Background

Periodic Table with 118 Elements – Dark Background

Colorful Periodic Table PDF

There’s also a PDF of this table you can download with a transparent background. This image is gigantic, intended to look great even on 4K monitors.

Periodic Table Printing Instructions

The image is smaller than the file (so the page will load), so to get the full-sized version, click the link for the color of image you prefer. Then you can download or print it.

Copyright Information

We didn’t put the copyright on the picture because it’s prettier this way, but we do retain all rights to the images. As always, you’re welcome to put the table on your computer, phone, or other mobile device and print it to hand out or put on your wall. Please don’t post it on your website, or we’ll ask you to take it down. If you wish to use the image in a book or publication, just send a note and we’ll likely give you permission 🙂

Wear the Periodic Table (or Drink from It)

Periodic Table Hoodie

Periodic Table Hoodie

We’ve teamed up with Redbubble to offer this table and the individual element tiles on a variety of products, including full-size posters, t-shirts, coffee mugs, leggings, you name it. You can find this table (and many more) at our shop. If you see something on the site you’d like, but can’t find it on the shop, just post a note and we’ll fix you up.

Printable Periodic Table Element Symbols

I LuV YOU with Periodic Table Element Symbols

I LuV YOU with Periodic Table Element Symbols

Here’s a collection of all 118 periodic table element symbols. You can print them and put them together to make words and signs. These images are optimized to print and resize cleanly with a small file size. You’re welcome to print them for your classroom, parties, decorations, etc. However, they’re copyrighted, so please don’t post them online or use them for products to sell.

If you’d like to see an element with a different color background or spelling, just post a reply. I have added Aluminium and Sulphur.

How To Download and Save the Color Element Symbols

The images are large, so rather than post them full-size, each element symbol is linked to its own page. To get the symbol, click the element and go to its page and right click and save the image.

Words and Sentences Made With Element Symbols

Element Symbol Mug

Need ideas? Here’s a list of words and even complete sentences you can make with these element symbols.

These symbols are also available on stickers, t-shirts, coffee mugs, and notebooks at Redbubble (along with our other cool stuff!).

Color Element Symbols (in order)

Hydrogen Element Symbol002-Helium003-Lithium004-Beryllium005-Boron006-Carbon007-Nitrogen008-Oxygen009-Fluorine010-Neon011-Sodium012-Magnesium013-Aluminum013-Aluminium014-Silicon015-Phosphorus016-Sulfur016-Sulphur017-Chlorine018-Argon019-Potassium020-Calcium021-Scandium022-Titanium023-Vanadium024-Chromium025-Manganese026-Iron027-Cobalt028-Nickel029-Copper030-Zinc031-Gallium032-Germanium033-Arsenic034-Selenium035-Bromine036-Krypton037-Rubidium038-Strontium039-Yttrium040-Zirconium041-Niobium042-Molybdenum043-Technetium044-Ruthenium045-Rhodium046-Palladium047-Silver048-Cadmium049-Indium050-Tin051-Antimony052-Tellurium053-Iodine054-Xenon055-Cesium056-Barium057-Lanthanum58-Cerium059-Praseodymium060-Neodymium061-Promethium062-Samarium063-Europium064-Gadolinium065-Terbium066-Dysprosium067-Holmium068-Erbium069-Thulium070-Ytterbium071-Lutetium072-Hafnium073-Tantalum074-Tungsten075-Rhenium076-Osmium077-Iridium078-Platinum079-Gold080-Mercury081-Thallium082-Lead083-Bismuth084-Polonium085-Astatine086-Radon087-Francium088-Radium089-Actinium090-Thorium091-Protactinium092-Uranium093-Neptunium094-Plutonium095-Americium096-Curium097-Berkelium098-Californium099-Einsteinium100-Fermium101-Mendelevium102-Nobelium103-Lawrencium104-Rutherfordium105-Dubnium106-Seaborgium107-Bohrium108-Hassium109-Meitnerium110-Darmstadtium111-Roentgenium112-Copernicium113-Nihonium114-Flerovium115-Moscovium116-Livermorium117-Tennessine118-Oganesson