Tag Archives: valence

Element Valency PDF

Fluroine Atom

The outer shell of a fluorine atom contains 7 electrons. This means it has one less electron than needed to complete the shell. This gives fluorine a -1 valence.

This element Valency PDF is a downloadable version of the Valences of the Elements table.

Download PDF Download PDF

As in the table, the most common valences are in BOLD text where values in italics are theoretical values based on periodic table trends.

This table requires three sheets of paper to print. If you prefer a more compact version, this information is available in periodic table form. There is a Color Periodic Table of the Elements or a Black and White version. A simpler version listing only the most common valence charges is also available.

This is page 1 of the PDF file. It contains the valences of the first 45 elements.

Element Valences 1-45Elements 46-118 can be found in the PDF.


Periodic Table With Charges

If you need a periodic table with charges you’ve come to the right place. These printable periodic tables list the element charges right on them, so you don’t have to try to figure them out based on the location of the element group.

Color Periodic Table With Charges

This is the 2015 version of the color periodic table with element charges, with either a white or black background. These tables are also available as a PDF file to download or print.

Color Periodic Table with Charges - 2015

Color Periodic Table with Charges – 2015

Color Periodic Table Wallpaper of Element Charges

Color Periodic Table Wallpaper of Element Charges

Black and White Periodic Table with Charges

If you prefer a basic black and white table, here you go. This table is also available as a free PDF download. There is also an older version of this table (2014) that you are welcome to use, but the table below has slightly updated facts and is better-optimized for printing. We think it’s better, but it’s up to you.

Black and White Periodic Table with Element Charges - 2015

Black and White Periodic Table with Charges – 2015

The tables are HD, so they make good wallpapers for your computer or mobile device. They are designed to resize well, so you can print the size anywhere from regular printer paper size to poster size. If you do print on a sheet of regular paper, it’s best to select landscape orientation and have the table fit to the page. This makes the information easier to read.

Related Information

Color Periodic Table Chart with Charges – 2015

This color periodic table chart with charges is an updated version of the Downloadable Periodic Table – Oxidation States.

Each element cell contains the atomic number, symbol, name, atomic mass and most common valence charge of each element. The most common oxidation states are in bold text and predicted or unconfirmed states are in italics.
Each brightly colored border represents a different element group.

Color Periodic Table Oxidation States - 2015This table is available for download as a PDF file and printed for offline use. For best printing results, choose Landscape and ‘Fit’ for the size option.

The above image can be used as a widescreen (1920×1080) desktop wallpaper for your computer. Click the image to open the full size version and save to your device or computer.

There is a black and white version of this table for those without access to a color printer.

If a darker wallpaper is prefered, the same table is available with a black background.

Periodic Table Oxidation States Wallpaper - 2015Click the image to view the full-sized version.
If you enjoy using a lot of toner or ink, download the PDF of the dark background table and print yourself a copy.

Printable Periodic Table with Charges – 2015

This printable periodic table with charges is an updated version of the Printable Periodic Table – Oxidation States.

Printable Periodic Table of Oxidation States - 2015Each element cell contains the atomic number, symbol, name, atomic mass and most common valence charge of each element.
The most common oxidation states are in bold text and predicted or unconfirmed states are in italics.

The table is available for download in PDF format for offline printing.
For best results, choose Landscape and ‘Fit’ for the size option.

A color version of this table is available for use with color printers or as a colorful desktop wallpaper.

Polyatomic Ions List

Polyatomic ions are ions that contain more than one element. This polyatomic ions list contains many common polyatomic ions grouped by charge. Each entry contains the ion’s name, molecular formula and chemical structure.

+1 Polyatomic Ions

 Ion FormulaStructure
AmmoniumNH4+Ammonium Cation Structure
HydroniumH3O+Hydronium Ion

-1 Polyatomic Ions

 Ion FormulaStructure
AcetateC2H3O2Acetate Anion
BicarbonateHCO3bicarbonate anion structure
BisulfateHSO4Bisulfate Anion Structure
ChlorateCO3Chlorate Anion Structure
ChloriteClO2Chlorite Anion Structure
CyanateOCNCyanate Anion
CyanideCNCyanide Anion Structure
Dihydrogen phosphateH2PO4Dihydrogen Phosphate Anion
Dihydrogen phosphiteH2PO3Dihydrogen Phosphite Anion
HydroxideOHHydroxide Anion
NitrateNO3Nitrate Anion
NitriteNO2Nitrite Anion
PerchlorateClO4Perchlorate Anion
PermanganateMnO4Permanganate Anion
ThiocyanateSCNThiocyanate Anion

-2 Polyatomic Ions

 Ion FormulaStructure
CarbonateCO32-Carbonate Anion
ChromateCrO42-Chromate Anion
DichromateCr2O72-Dichromate Anion
Hydrogen phosphateHPO42-Hydrogen Phosphate Anion
PeroxideO22-Peroxide Anion
SilicateSiO32-Silicate Anion
SulfateSO42-Sulfate Anion
SulfiteSO32-Sulfite Anion
ThiosulfateS2O32-Thiosulfate Anion

-3 Polyatomic Ions

 Ion FormulaStructure
PhosphatePO43-Phosphate Anion
PhosphitePO33-Phosphite Anion

Periodic Table – Outermost Electron Orbitals

This Periodic Table shows the general relationship of each element’s outermost electron orbitals.

Outer Orbital Block Periodic Table

Periodic Table of the Elements showing the outermost electron blocks of the elements. Click the image to zoom.

You can see the trends easily with this table. As the atomic number increases, s orbitals are filled first, followed by p orbitals. The transition elements are the beginning of filling the d orbitals and the lanthanides and actinides have enough electrons to populate f orbitals. Remember:

  • s orbitals can contain two electrons.
  • p orbitals can contain 8 electrons
  • d orbitals can contain 10 electrons
  • f orbitals can contain 14 electrons

This table also gives a clue to why the table is not just a rectangular column of elements but instead has gaps across the top. You can also see why the lanthanides and actinides are often included underneath the main body of the Periodic Table. If they were included with the same pattern, the table would be much wider.

The transition element gap on the table is 10 elements wide. This corresponds to the d orbitals that are filled by the electrons of these elements. The same goes for lanthanides and actinides. There are fourteen lanthanides and actinides filling the f blocks across the bottom.

If you are looking for a Periodic Table of the Elements with electron configurations for each element, check out this Color Periodic Table with Electron Configurations.

Today In Science History – July 13

August Kekulé

Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz. (1829-1896) German chemist

July 13 marks the passing of one of the most prominent chemists of the 19th Century, August Kekulé.

Kekulé is credited as the man who discovered the tetravalence of carbon, carbon atoms could bond to other carbon atoms and discovered the bonding order of atoms in a molecule. He was the first to draw chemical structures where atoms were connected by lines to represent the bonds between them.

Kekulé’s theory of molecular bonding would chain together atoms by their valence charges. This allowed chemists to better understand and visualize what the molecule looked like. This in turn allowed chemists to predict what it would take to break apart molecules and synthesize new ones. While this theory was more of a rule of thumb and many exceptions could be found, it’s use greatly advanced organic chemistry in a short amount of time.

Benzene 3D

3D Ball and Stick model of the benzene molecule. Credit: Todd Helmenstine

Kekulé is often credited for discovering the ring structure of the benzene molecule. Benzene consists of six carbon atoms forming a ring, with one hydrogen atom bonded to each carbon. Kekulé wrote about the method of his discovery where he was sitting by the fireplace and started to nod off. He dreamed of atoms arranging themselves in groups of ever increasing size until they became long chains. The chains started to wind and turn like snakes until one snake grabbed its own tail. He woke up suddenly and spent the rest of the night working out the structure. It just goes to show that if you let your mind wander, you may figure out a solution to a problem. That, or it shows chemists can have some strange dreams.