Anne Helmenstine


Strong and Weak Acids
Strong and weak acids are key concepts in chemistry. Strong acids completely dissociate into their ions in water, while weak acids incompletely dissociate. There are only a few strong acids, but many weak acids. Strong Acids Strong acids completely dissociate in water into their ions and produce one of more […]

List of Common Strong and Weak Acids   Recently updated !


Test Tubes of Blue Liquid
The blue bottle reaction is a classic color change chemistry demonstration. It interests students in chemistry, introduces the scientific method, and illustrates oxidation and reduction (redox reactions) and chemical kinetics. The reaction starts as a blue liquid which becomes colorless and returns to its blue color. Materials The usual materials […]

Blue Bottle Chemistry Demonstration   Recently updated !





Glowing Flowers
Flowers are already beautiful, but have you ever wanted to make glowing flowers so you could see them in the dark? All you need is a bit of basic chemistry and biology to make real flowers glow. Here are four methods to make glowing flowers. There are instructions for both […]

How to Make Glowing Flowers   Recently updated !


Hot and Cold Volcanoes
Learn about endothermic and exothermic reactions by making cold and hot chemical volcanoes. This project is more entertaining than mixing chemicals in beakers and measuring their temperatures. The volcanoes use common, safe household ingredients. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions An endothermic chemical reaction absorbs energy from its environment, so the reaction […]

Hot and Cold Volcano: Easy Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions   Recently updated !