Cherenkov Radiation


What Is Cherenkov Radiation
Cherenkov radiation is light emitted when charged particle move fast than light through a dielectric, like water. (image: ORNL, CC 2.0)

When you see nuclear reactors in pictures or movies, the water around them appears blue. This blue glow isn’t a sci-fi special effect. It’s a real phenomenon called Cherenkov radiation.

What Is Cherenkov Radiation?

Cherenkov radiation is the light emitted when a charged particle passes through a transparent dielectric medium faster than the speed of light through that medium. A dielectric, in turn, is an electrical insulator capable of being polarized by an electromagnetic field. Cherenkov radiation appears as a blue glow in a medium, such as water or glass.

Other names for the phenomenon are Cerenkov radiation or Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. The light takes its name for Soviet scientist Pavel Cherenkov. Cherenkov, under the supervision of Sergey Vavilov, experimentally detected the blue light in water containing a uranium salt solution at the Lebedev Institute in 1934. Cherenkov’s colleagues, Igor Tamm and Ilya Frank, developed the theory of how the effect worked, earning the three of them the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics.

How It Works

Cherenkov radiation is akin to the sonic boom produced when an object exceeds the speed of sound in air. When a particle travels faster than light can travel in that medium, it disrupts the electromagnetic field in the medium. This disruption momentarily polarizes the molecules in the medium. As these molecules return to their normal state, they emit photons (light) which produce the observable glow.

Note that the light does not come from any interaction between the charged particle and the medium. It is not scattering of light or ionization. Instead, think of the effect coming from a moving particle (like an electron) that is emitting its own light as it passes through the medium.

Faster Than the Speed of Light?

The key is understanding that the charged particle travels faster than the speed of light through the medium. For example, the speed of light in water is about 75% of the speed of light in a vacuum. So, there is no violation of the laws of physics.

Why Is Cherenkov Radiation Blue?

Actually, Cherenkov radiation is a continuous spectrum of light, not blue. However, the higher frequencies or shorter wavelengths are more intense. Much of this light is in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, which is invisible to most people and gets absorbed by some types of media. So, the resulting apparent color is a brilliant blue.

The reason the color leans toward the blue/violet part of the spectrum is because the energy of the light depends on the speed of the particle, its electrical charge, the permeability of the medium, and its index of refraction. The color varies a bit, for example, in glass versus water or in deep versus shallow water.

Can Cherenkov Radiation Occur in Air?

Yes, Cherenkov radiation is possible in air. It’s a transparent dielectric medium. However, the particles in air are very far apart, compared to the particles in a liquid or solid, so the light is faint. Also, the speed of light in air is very close to the speed of light in a vacuum, so the particles have to move very quickly. That being said, cosmic rays and gamma radiation entering the atmosphere produce Cherenkov radiation air showers. The light isn’t visible to people. Scientists use particle detectors and special telescopes for detecting this light.

In fact, Cherenkov radiation also occurs in a vacuum! This only happens when there is a strong electromagnetic field that essentially gives the vacuum a refractive index. This slows the phase velocity of light.

Cherenkov Radiation vs Ionization

While Cherenkov radiation and ionization both result in visible glows, they are fundamentally different phenomena.

  • Cherenkov radiation occurs when charged particles travel through a medium faster than the phase velocity of light. The glow is usually blue and it only occurs in a transparent dielectric medium when particles are moving at relativistic speeds. It occurs in nuclear reactors and lab settings with radioactive materials mainly in water or glass.
  • Ionization occurs when there is enough energy to remove electrons from atoms or molecule. The emission of light occurs when electrons recombine with ions. The glow color varies. In air, it is often blue or violet from the ionization of nitrogen and oxygen. It occurs during electrical discharges (like lightning), nuclear explosions, and around intense radioactive sources.

Is Cherenkov Radiation Harmful?

No, Cherenkov radiation is essentially blue light. It is not harmful. However, it indicates the presence of high energy particles or radiation, which can hurt you.

Where to See Cherenkov Radiation

You probably won’t witness Cherenkov radiation in person unless you visit a nuclear reactor or get radiation treatment for cancer. Here are some situations where it occurs:

  • Most photographs are of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The glow indicates the presence of high-energy beta particles (typically electrons) traveling faster than the speed of light in water.
  • During radiation therapy for cancer, some people report seeing blue flashes of light inside their eyes. The vitreous humor of the eye acts like the water surrounding a nuclear reactor.
  • Some high-energy physics experiments involving particle accelerators produce the light.
  • Immersing some radioactive materials in water produces the blue glow.

Practical Applications

Mostly, the light finds use as an indicator of fast charged particles:

  • Nuclear reactor monitoring
  • Detecting high-speed charged particles in physics experiments
  • Astrophysics and cosmic ray detection
  • Real-time visualization during radiotherapy
  • Environmental monitoring of radioactive materials

Common Misconceptions About Cherenkov Radiation

Cherenkov radiation isn’t the easiest concept to understand, so there are some common misconceptions about it:

  • It is not a violation of the speed of light limit: Cherenkov radiation does not involve particles traveling faster than the speed of light in a vacuum. It occurs when particles travel faster than the speed of light in a medium, which is lower than the speed of light in a vacuum.
  • It is not visible in all transparent mediums.
  • It is not just blue: The blue color is the most commonly observed because shorter wavelengths (blue and violet) are more intense. However, Cherenkov radiation spans a spectrum that includes ultraviolet and sometimes near-infrared light, depending on the medium and the energy of the particles.
  • It is not heat or a form of thermal radiation: Cherenkov radiation is light. Don’t confuse it with heat or infrared radiation, which involve the movement of particles within a material.
  • It is not caused by friction: Some types of electromagnetic radiation result from friction or heating effects. However, Cherenkov radiation results from electromagnetic interactions.
  • It is not harmful: The radiation itself is just light and is not harmful to humans. However, it indicates the presence of potentially dangerous ionizing radiation.
  • It does not occur naturally in everyday environments: Cherenkov radiation requires specific conditions related to high-energy physics experiments, nuclear reactors, or cosmic rays entering the Earth’s atmosphere. It is different from light produced under normal conditions, like lightning, the aurora, or chemiluminescence.
  • It’s (mostly) not why some radioactive materials glow blue: Technetium, einsteinium, actinium, and certain other radioactive materials glow blue in air. However, this is due to the ionization of air. That being said, if you put radioactive materials in water and the water glows blue, it’s likely from Cherenkov radiation.

References

  • Bolotovskii, B. M. (2009). “Vavilov – Cherenkov radiation: Its discovery and application”. Physics-Uspekhi. 52 (11): 1099–1110. doi:10.3367/UFNe.0179.200911c.1161
  • Cherenkov, P. A. (1934). “Visible emission of clean liquids by action of γ radiation”. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. 2: 451.
  • Macleod, Alexander J.; Noble, Adam; Jaroszynski, Dino A. (2019). “Cherenkov radiation from the quantum vacuum”. Physical Review Letters. 122 (16): 161601. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.161601
  • Sengupta, P. (2000). Classical Electrodynamics (1st ed.). New Delhi: New Age International. ISBN 978-81-224-1249-9.
  • Tendler, Irwin I.; Hartford, Alan; Jermyn, Michael; Pogue, Brian W. (2019). “Experimentally Observed Cherenkov Light Generation in the Eye During Radiation Therapy”. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 106 (2): 422–429. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.10.031