Natural Numbers – Definition, Examples, Properties


Natural Numbers Definition and Examples
The natural numbers are the counting numbers, running from 1 to infinity.

Natural numbers, often symbolized as ℕ, form the foundation of our numeric system and are the basic counting numbers that we use in everyday life. By definition, natural numbers start from one (1) and extend indefinitely in the positive direction, i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and so on.

Zero is not typically included in the set of natural numbers; however, in some mathematical contexts, it is part of this set. It’s crucial to note that the natural numbers do not include fractions, decimals, irrational, or negative numbers.

Importance of Natural Numbers

Natural numbers are important. They form the basis for counting and measuring. We used them every day for understanding quantities, performing basic arithmetic operations, and ultimately understanding the universe. They are the first numbers children learn and find use in daily life in counting objects, measuring distances, and denoting time.

Moreover, natural numbers have deep significance in advanced mathematics and computer science. They provide the basis for defining more complex number sets, like integers, rational numbers, and real numbers. They form the bedrock for nearly all mathematical theories and computations.

Examples of Natural Numbers and Non-Natural Numbers

The smallest natural number is 1. Any positive count starting from 1 represents a natural number. For example, the first ten natural numbers are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Other examples of natural numbers are 42, 955, and 124889. Odd natural numbers include 3, 7, and 145. Examples of even natural numbers are, 2, 6, 36, and 152.

Numbers that are not natural include fractions (like 1/2, 3/4), decimals (0.5, 3.14), negative numbers (-1, -7), and irrational numbers (like pi or the square root of 2). Also, 0 is not (usually) a natural number.

Natural Numbers Vs. Whole Numbers and Integers

People sometimes confuse natural numbers with whole numbers and integers, but there are key distinctions between these classes of numbers.

Whole Numbers: The set of whole numbers (usually denoted as ℤ⁺) is very similar to the set of natural numbers, with one crucial difference: it includes zero. So while natural numbers start from 1 and extend in the positive direction, whole numbers start from 0 and extend positively: {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …}.

Integers: The set of integers (represented as ℤ) includes all natural numbers, their negatives, and zero. So while natural numbers are always positive, integers can be negative, zero, or positive: {…, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ….}.

Mathematical Properties of Natural Numbers

Natural numbers have several fundamental properties that make them invaluable in mathematical operations:

  1. Closure Property: Natural numbers are closed under addition and multiplication, which means that the sum or product of any two natural numbers is always a natural number.
  2. Associative Property: For any three natural numbers, the grouping doesn’t affect the outcome of addition or multiplication. For example, (2 + 3) + 4 = 2 + (3 + 4) and (2 x 3) x 4 = 2 x (3 x 4).
  3. Commutative Property: The order of natural numbers does not change the result of addition or multiplication. For example, 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 and 2 x 3 = 3 x 2.
  4. Distributive Property: Multiplication distributes over addition in the set of natural numbers. For example, 2 x (3 + 4) = (2 x 3) + (2 x 4).
  5. Identity Property: Adding zero to a natural number or multiplying a natural number by one leaves it unchanged. For example, 5 + 0 = 5 and 5 x 1 = 5.
  6. Well-Ordering Principle: Every non-empty set of natural numbers has a least element.

However, natural numbers lack certain properties that integers and rational numbers have, such as the ability to subtract larger numbers from smaller ones, or to divide one number by another and always obtain a number within the same set.

In summary, natural numbers are fundamental to understanding quantity and forming the basis of our number system. Though basic in nature, they establish a foundation for more complex mathematical concepts and systems.

References

  • Eves, Howard (1990). An Introduction to the History of Mathematics (6th ed.). Thomson. ISBN 978-0-03-029558-4.
  • Fletcher, Harold; Howell, Arnold A. (2014). Mathematics With Understanding. Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4832-8079-0.
  • Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-37568-3.
  • Levy, Azriel (1979). Basic Set Theory. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-662-02310-5.
  • Szczepanski, Amy F.; Kositsky, Andrew P. (2008). The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Pre-algebra. Penguin Group. ISBN 978-1-59257-772-9.