Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources   Recently updated !

Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources Examples

In the era of rapid technological advancement and environmental awareness, the distinction between renewable and nonrenewable resources is critically important. Let’s explore these two categories of resources, their definitions, examples, and the implications of their use, especially in the context of energy production.

What Are Renewable Resources?

Renewable resources are those that replenish naturally in a relatively short timeframe. These resources are sustainable as they can be used indefinitely without depletion, provided they are managed responsibly. Nonrenewable resources, on the other hand, are either finite or else they replenish very slowly, usually over geological time spans. Once these resources run out, they’re gone.

The time frame that distinguishes renewable resources from nonrenewable resources is not precisely defined, as it depends on various factors such as the rate of consumption and the natural replenishment rate of the resource. However, here is a general guideline:

  • Renewable Resources: These replenish on a human timescale, meaning they restore naturally at a rate comparable to or faster than the rate of human consumption. This time frame ranges from a few hours (like sunlight) to several decades (such as forest regrowth). The key aspect is that the resource is sustainable without running the risk of depletion.
  • Nonrenewable Resources: In contrast, nonrenewable resources exist in finite amounts or replenish over vast time scales, which are much longer than human lifespans or even the lifespan of human civilizations. This ranges from thousands to millions of years. For instance, fossil fuels like coal and petroleum took millions of years to form and won’t replenish within a human time frame once depleted.

10 Examples of Renewable Resources

The food we eat, crops that supply materials for various purposes, and anything relating to energy from the Sun or Earth are renewable. Air and water are also renewable, up to a point.

  1. Agricultural Products: Crops and livestock regenerate seasonally or annually. Wild food sources are also renewable with management.
  2. Solar Energy: Energy from the sun.
  3. Wind Energy: Energy from wind.
  4. Hydropower: Energy from the movement of water in rivers, streams, or dams.
  5. Biomass: Organic material from plants and animals used as fuel.
  6. Geothermal Energy: Heat from the Earth’s interior.
  7. Tidal Energy: Energy from the movement of tides, a form of hydropower.
  8. Wave Energy: Energy from the surface motion of oceans or lakes.
  9. Biofuels: Fuels from organic materials, such as ethanol and biodiesel.
  10. Ambient Heat: Energy from the air or water temperature differences in the environment.

10 Examples of Nonrenewable Resources

  1. Coal: A fossil fuel primarily for electricity generation and industrial processes.
  2. Crude Oil: A liquid fossil fuel that yields gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum products.
  3. Natural Gas: A gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane, used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation.
  4. Nuclear Energy: Comes from the nuclear reactions of elements like uranium. Note this applies to fission. Fusion is theoretically a renewable form of nuclear energy. Power from radioactive decay isn’t renewable, exactly, but some decay processes occur over thousands, millions, or billions of years.
  5. Minerals: Such as gold, silver, and copper, which are mined from the Earth.
  6. Metal Ores: Iron, aluminum, and zinc ores which are extracted and refined.
  7. Phosphates: Used for fertilizers and limited in supply.
  8. Rare Earth Elements: Essential for modern electronics and have limited sources.
  9. Sand: Used in construction, glass making, etc., and facing scarcity in certain locations.
  10. Topsoil: Essential for agriculture; its depletion is a concern in many areas due to erosion and overuse.

Is Water a Renewable Resource?

Some resources are technically renewable, yet their replacement isn’t quite fast enough for sustainability. For example, depending on the situation, water is either a renewable or nonrenewable resource.

Water as a Renewable Resource

In its natural cycle, water is considered renewable. It goes through a continuous process of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation (the hydrological cycle), which replenishes freshwater sources such as rivers, lakes, and aquifers over time. This cycle is powered by the sun, and as long as the sun shines, the water cycle will continue.

Situations Where Water Is Nonrenewable

However, there are scenarios where water is effectively a nonrenewable resource:

  1. Overuse of Groundwater: In some areas, groundwater extraction is faster than the rate at which is replenishes naturally. This is common in agricultural and densely populated regions. When aquifers deplete faster than they recharge, water is effectively nonrenewable.
  2. Pollution: Water contaminated by pollutants becomes unusable. If the contamination is severe and persistent, the affected water source is nonrenewable since it cannot be naturally cleaned and replenished at a viable rate.
  3. Climate Change and Drought: Climate change alters weather patterns, leading to droughts in areas that previously had abundant water. This turns previously renewable sources of water into nonrenewable ones, at least temporarily.
  4. Geographical Limitations: In certain arid regions, the natural replenishment of water sources is extremely limited. In these areas, the availability of naturally occurring fresh water is so low that it functions more like a nonrenewable resource.

Renewable vs. Nonrenewable Energy

Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy Examples

Energy is a fundamental requirement for modern civilization, and its generation comes from both renewable and nonrenewable resources.

Examples of 10 Renewable Energy Sources

  1. Solar Power: Energy from sunlight using solar panels.
  2. Wind Power: Energy from wind using turbines.
  3. Hydropower: Energy from the movement of water in rivers, dams, or tidal currents.
  4. Biomass Energy: Energy from organic materials like wood, crop waste, and biogas.
  5. Geothermal Energy: Heat energy from the Earth’s internal heat.
  6. Tidal Energy: Energy from the rise and fall of tides.
  7. Wave Energy: Energy from surface waves on oceans or lakes.
  8. Biofuels: Fuels from organic materials, such as ethanol from corn or biodiesel from vegetable oil.
  9. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): Utilizing temperature differences between surface and deep ocean waters for energy production.
  10. Solar Thermal Power: Uses sunlight to produce heat, which then generates electricity (different from photovoltaic solar power).

Examples of 10 Nonrenewable Energy Sources

Generally speaking, fossil fuels and anything mined from the ground counts as nonrenewable. This includes minerals, elements, chemicals for batteries, and nuclear fuels.

  1. Coal: Burned for electricity generation and industrial applications.
  2. Crude Oil: Refined into gasoline, diesel, and other fuels.
  3. Natural Gas: Used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation.
  4. Nuclear Power: Energy produced from nuclear reactions, often using uranium.
  5. Peat: An accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter, used similarly to coal.
  6. Oil Shale: Sedimentary rock containing organic matter converted into oil through processing.
  7. Tar Sands (Bitumen): A combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen, processed to extract crude oil.
  8. Diesel: A type of fuel derived from crude oil, used in various engines.
  9. Propane: A byproduct of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, used as fuel.
  10. Kerosene: A lighter fuel derived from petroleum, used for heating, lighting, and jet engines.

Environmental Impact, Cost, and Infrastructure

1. Environmental Impact:

  • Renewable Energy: Generally has a lower environmental impact. For example, solar and wind power produce no greenhouse gas emissions during operation. However, their production and disposal has environmental effects.
  • Nonrenewable Energy: Typically has a significant environmental impact, particularly fossil fuels, which are major sources of greenhouse gas emissions and pollution.

2. Cost:

  • Renewable Energy: Initially high investment costs but low operational costs. The cost of technologies like solar and wind power is decreasing over time.
  • Nonrenewable Energy: Often cheaper in terms of upfront costs but has higher long-term costs, considering factors like environmental damage and health impacts.

3. Infrastructure Requirements:

  • Renewable Energy: Requires significant infrastructure investment, such as wind farms or solar panels. Some renewable sources are also location-dependent.
  • Nonrenewable Energy: Established infrastructure in most places, but extraction and transportation are challenging and environmentally damaging.

Cases Where Renewable Energy Is Not “Greener”

Renewable energy offers hope for clean, green power. But, there are scenarios where renewable energy sources is not environmentally superior. For example:

  • Biomass Energy: Leads to deforestation and increase in carbon emissions if not managed sustainably.
  • Hydropower: Large dams disrupt ecosystems and displace communities.
  • Solar Panels and Wind Turbines: Their production involves energy-intensive processes and materials that are harmful if not disposed of properly. Wind turbines also pose risks to wildlife.

Pros and Cons of Renewable vs. Nonrenewable Energy

Pros of Renewable Energy:

  1. Sustainable and inexhaustible.
  2. Lower greenhouse gas emissions.
  3. Reduced dependence on fossil fuels.
  4. Potential for local job creation.

Cons of Renewable Energy:

  1. Higher initial costs.
  2. Intermittency issues (e.g., solar energy is not produced at night).
  3. Requires large areas for some technologies.
  4. Environmental impact in manufacturing and disposal.

Pros of Nonrenewable Energy:

  1. Reliable and consistent energy supply.
  2. Established infrastructure and technology.
  3. Lower initial investment in many cases.

Cons of Nonrenewable Energy:

  1. Finite and unsustainable in the long term.
  2. Significant environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.
  3. Health risks associated with pollution.
  4. Vulnerable to market and geopolitical fluctuations.


The choice between renewable and nonrenewable resources is not just a matter of replacing one with the other; it involves a complex consideration of environmental impacts, costs, infrastructure needs, and technological advancements. While renewable energy is often seen as the greener alternative, its implementation requires careful management to minimize negative impacts. Balancing the pros and cons of both types of resources is essential for a sustainable and responsible energy future.


  • Ang, Tze-Zhang; Salem, Mohamed; et al. (2022). “A comprehensive study of renewable energy sources: Classifications, challenges and suggestions”. Energy Strategy Reviews. 43: 100939. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2022.100939
  • Committee on 21st Century Systems Agriculture (2010). Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-14896-2.
  • Nikolau, Basil J.; Perera, M. Ann D.N.; et al. (2008). “Platform biochemicals for a biorenewable chemical industry”. The Plant Journal. 54 (4): 536–545. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03484.x
  • Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa; Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel (2016). “A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation”. Cogent Engineering. 3 (1): 1167990. doi:10.1080/23311916.2016.1167990

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.