Science Notes Posts


Lemon juice has a low pH, mainly due to the high concentration of citric acid.
Acids in Lemon Juice Lemon Juice and Your Body References Penniston, K.L.; Nakada, S.Y.; Holmes, R.P.; Assimos, D.G. (2008). “Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products.” Journal of Endourology. 22 (3): 567–570. doi:10.1089/end.2007.0304 Rauf, A.; Uddin, G.; Ali, J. (2014). “Phytochemical analysis […]

What Is the pH of Lemon Juice?



Calculators often indicate scientific notation with capital letter E or EE.
Scientific notation is a method of writing very large or very small numbers in decimal form. The method is used by scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. Scientific notation is also called standard form, standard index form, or scientific form. Examples of large numbers written in scientific notation include Avogadro’s number (6.022 […]

Scientific Notation – Working With Exponents   Recently updated !


You can substitute baking powder for baking soda, but not the other way around.
Baking can be more of a challenge if you discover all your baking soda got used up for chemical volcanoes! Baking powder and baking soda are both leavening agents that make baked good rise. Baking soda combines with water and an acidic ingredient to produce carbon dioxide bubbles, while baking […]

How to Substitute Baking Powder and Baking Soda   Recently updated !


The shelf life of chlorine bleach is about 3 months.
Did you know chlorine bleach has a shelf life? Whether the container has been opened or not, bleach loses its activity over time. Using bleach past its shelf life results in reduced bleaching and disinfecting capacity. How Long Is Bleach Good? How long bleach lasts depends mainly on temperature. So, […]

Chlorine Bleach Shelf Life   Recently updated !



Distilled water is free of minerals.
Distilled water is water purified by condensing water vapor into liquid water. Usually, the distillation process involves boiling impure water and collected the condensed vapor in a fresh container. However, you can obtain distilled water from damp soil, plants, snow, and rain, too. You can distill water to make drinking […]

How to Make Distilled Water – 5 Easy Methods   Recently updated !


Hot ice is another name for sodium acetate.
Hot ice is another name for sodium acetate (CH3COONa or NaOAc). It is the sodium salt of acetic acid, which is the key component of vinegar. Hot ice gets its name from the way it solidifies. A solution of sodium acetate supercooled below its melting point suddenly crystallizes. Heat is […]

Make Hot Ice From Baking Soda and Vinegar   Recently updated !


Quartz crystals commonly occur in nature.
A crystal is a form of matter in which the atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in a highly ordered three-dimensional lattice. Crystals are also called crystalline solids because most crystals are solid. However, liquid crystals also exist. The word “crystal” comes from the Greek word krustallos, which means both […]

What Is a Crystal? Definition and Examples   Recently updated !



Metallic microlattice is so light that a dandelion head can support it without being crushed.
Can you name the lightest metal? Most metals are heavy or dense, yet some metals can float on water while others are nearly as light as air. Learn about the lightest elemental metal and the lightest alloy. Lightest Metal That Is an Element When we talk about a material being […]

What Is the Lightest Metal?   Recently updated !


A seed crystal is a small crystal used to promote growth of a larger one.
A seed crystal is a small crystal that is used as a base to grow a large single crystal. Without a seed, crystals form slowly from random intermolecular interactions. When the seed is placed in a saturated or supersaturated solution it acts as a nucleation site. This decreases the time […]

How to Grow a Seed Crystal   Recently updated !


Fire writing with invisible ink
Fire writing is a fun science project. You write a message using invisible ink, let it dry, and then reveal the secret by touching a flame to the edge of the text. The message burns away, leaving the paper untouched except for the fire writing. Fire Writing Materials You only […]

Fire Writing With Invisible Ink




Brainstorm to get elementary school science project ideas.
Elementary school science projects are fun and educational, but coming up with a great idea can be challenging. If the project is for a science fair, there’s competition to win. But, the focus of the project should be on engaging a child in science and raising interest in how the […]

Elementary School Science Project Ideas


Green Crystal Needles
Grow a quick cup of crystal needles in your refrigerator. The whole project takes between 15 minutes and 2 hours, from start to finish. All you need is Epsom salt, water, and a little food dye if you want a pop of color. Materials Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) Water (hot […]

How to Grow a Cup of Quick Crystal Needles   Recently updated !











Drinking hand sanitizer gel is dangerous.
Some people drink hand sanitizer to get a buzz or get drunk. Kids have been known to lick hand sanitizer off their hands, resulting in a panicked call to Poison Control. How dangerous is it to drink hand sanitizer? What are the risks? What do you do if a child […]

Can You Drink Hand Sanitizer?





Bath bombs dissolve in an endothermic reaction
An endothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that absorbs heat from its environment. Like any chemical reaction, an endothermic reaction requires activation energy to proceed. Then, it continues to absorb energy. Such reactions feel cold. In contrast, exothermic reactions release more heat than they absorb and feel hot. Not all […]

Easy Endothermic Reaction Demonstration


Adding Positive Negative Numbers
Positive and negative numbers are two broad classes of numbers that are used in math and also everyday transactions, like managing money or measuring weight. A positive number has a value greater than zero. Its sign is positive, but it is usually written without a plus sign in front of […]

Rules for Positive and Negative Numbers





Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Molecule
Hydrofluoric acid or HF is an extremely powerful, corrosive acid. However, it’s classified as a weak acid rather than a strong acid. This makes HF the only hydrohalic acid that isn’t classified as a strong acid (e.g., HCl, HBr, HI). Why Hydrofluoric Acid Is a Weak Acid The simple reason […]

Is Hydrofluoric Acid a Strong or Weak Acid?


Strong and Weak Acids
Strong and weak acids are key concepts in chemistry. Strong acids completely dissociate into their ions in water, while weak acids incompletely dissociate. There are only a few strong acids, but many weak acids. Strong Acids Strong acids completely dissociate in water into their ions and produce one of more […]

List of Common Strong and Weak Acids





Hot and Cold Volcanoes
Learn about endothermic and exothermic reactions by making cold and hot chemical volcanoes. This project is more entertaining than mixing chemicals in beakers and measuring their temperatures. The volcanoes use common, safe household ingredients. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions An endothermic chemical reaction absorbs energy from its environment, so the reaction […]

Hot and Cold Volcano: Easy Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions





Atoms are often considered to be the building blocks of matter because they are the smallest units of chemical elements. These 10 atom facts cover basic information about atoms and some fun facts as well. The word atom comes from the Greek word atomos, which means “undivided” or “uncut.” The […]

10 Interesting Atom Facts



The elephant toothpaste chemistry demonstration produces a steaming tube of foam that erupts like an elephant squeezing a giant tube of toothpaste. The classic demo isn’t appropriate for kids because it uses 30% hydrogen peroxide, but there is a safe, easy version, too. The kid-friendly elephant toothpaste demo uses ordinary […]

Kid-Friendly Elephant Toothpaste Demo


Lightning Strike
The phrase “lightning never strikes the same place twice” means when something really bad (or really good) happens, it won’t happen again. Of course, that isn’t always true. It’s also a myth that lightning never strikes the same place twice. In the short term, lightning is more likely to follow […]

Can Lightning Strike the Same Place Twice?   Recently updated !


Cute tiles in love
Chemistry pick up lines can be cute, corny, cheesy, or funny. They might even work! To increase the odds of chemical attraction, try delivering one of these lines while wearing a lab coat or safety glasses. Or, offer your intended a cocktail that changes colors. Most of these pick up […]

Cute Chemistry Pick Up Lines   Recently updated !





Pi 1
March 14 is traditionally Pi Day since 3-14 are the first three digits of pi. The year 2015 added little more significance because the next two digits are 15. The year 2016 worked too, since you could round pi to 3.1416. Anyway, the digits of pi are important. That hasn’t stopped […]

Pi Day and the Indiana Pi Bill



Diatomic Elements 2
A diatomic element is a molecule of an element consisting of two atoms. It is a form of homonuclear diatomic molecule. There are only 7 diatomic elements in total and only 5 diatomic elements at standard temperature and pressure (STP). The diatomic elements are hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, […]

What Are Diatomic Elements? Definition and List   Recently updated !


Periodic Table Metals - 2017 5
Most elements can be considered metals. They are grouped together in the middle to the left-hand side of the periodic table. The metals consist of the alkali metals, alkaline earths, transition metals, lanthanides, and actinides. Properties of Metals The metals share several common properties, including: solid at room temperature (with […]

List of Metals