Science Notes Posts


Mole Ratio
The mole ratio describes the fixed proportions between reactants and products in a chemical reaction. It is important in stoichiometry, particularly when used as a conversion factor in mole to gram conversions. Here is the mole ratio definition, with examples showing how to find the ratio and use it. Mole […]

Mole Ratio - Definition and Examples   Recently updated !







































































Diffusion is the movement of molecules from higher to lower concentration. In osmosis, only the solvent (water) is free to move across a semipermeable membrane from higher to lower concentration.
Osmosis and diffusion are two important types of mass transport. Here are the definitions of osmosis and diffusion, examples of each process, and a look at the differences between them. Osmosis and Diffusion Definitions Osmosis – Osmosis is the movement of solvent particles (usually water) across a semipermeable membrane from […]

Osmosis vs Diffusion – Definition and Examples



DNA or deoxyribonuclecic acid is a molecule that encodes genetic information.
DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is the molecule that codes genetic make-up. Here are 20 interesting and fun facts about DNA: The genetic code in DNA consists of only four building blocks. These are the nucleotides adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). The DNA molecule forms a double […]

20 DNA Facts – Fun Facts About DNA




Separate sand and salt by using the difference in solubility, density, or melting point.
You can separate sand and salt either to obtain the components or to explore separation chemistry. Separation is a method of purification that based on physical or chemical differences between two or more materials. Here are four ways to separate sand and salt and a look at the principles involved. […]

How to Separate Sand and Salt


Examples of Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
Polar and nonpolar molecules are the two broad classes of molecules. Polarity describes the distribution of electrical charge around a molecule. Charge is evenly distributed in a nonpolar molecule, but unevenly distributed in a polar molecule. In other words, a polar molecule has regions of partial charge. Here are examples […]

Polar and Nonpolar Molecules



The independent variable is the factor the researcher controls, while the dependent variable is the one that is measured.
The independent and dependent variables are key to any scientific experiment, but how do you tell them apart? Here are the definitions of independent and dependent variables, examples of each type, and tips for telling them apart and graphing them. Independent Variable The independent variable is the factor the researcher […]

Independent and Dependent Variables Examples


Piranha solution gets its name for its aggressive attack of organic material, like a school of piranha having a feeding frenzy.
Piranha solution is an aqueous mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that is used to remove organic residue from surfaces and make them more hydrophilic. It is also known as piranha etch because another common use is etching circuit boards. Piranha solution is wicked stuff, so read […]

Piranha Solution Preparation, Use, and Safety


Ionic and Covalent Bonds
Ionic and covalent bonds are the two main types of chemical bonding. A chemical bond is a link formed between two or more atoms or ions. The main difference between ionic and covalent bonds is how equally the electrons are shared between atoms in the bond. Here is an explanation […]

Ionic vs Covalent Bonds




Mercury is the only metal that is a liquid element at room temperature.
Most of the elements of the periodic table are solids, a few are gases, and there are only two liquid elements at room temperature and pressure. A total of six liquid elements exist between room temperature and body temperature. Liquid Elements at 25°C Room temperature is loosely defined as a […]

Liquid Elements on the Periodic Table




10 Types of Energy
Energy is defined as the ability to do work. There are many different forms of energy. According to the law of conservation of energy, energy may convert to other forms, but is never created or destroyed. Here is a list of 10 common types of energy and examples of each […]

10 Types of Energy and Examples


Calculators often indicate scientific notation with capital letter E or EE.
Scientific notation is a method of writing very large or very small numbers in decimal form. The method is used by scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. Scientific notation is also called standard form, standard index form, or scientific form. Examples of large numbers written in scientific notation include Avogadro’s number (6.022 […]

Scientific Notation – Working With Exponents




Distilled water is free of minerals.
Distilled water is water purified by condensing water vapor into liquid water. Usually, the distillation process involves boiling impure water and collected the condensed vapor in a fresh container. However, you can obtain distilled water from damp soil, plants, snow, and rain, too. You can distill water to make drinking […]

How to Make Distilled Water – 5 Easy Methods





The elephant toothpaste chemistry demonstration produces a steaming tube of foam that erupts like an elephant squeezing a giant tube of toothpaste. The classic demo isn’t appropriate for kids because it uses 30% hydrogen peroxide, but there is a safe, easy version, too. The kid-friendly elephant toothpaste demo uses ordinary […]

Kid-Friendly Elephant Toothpaste Demo