Carmelization Chemistry – Why Sugar Browns

The toasted part of a marshmallow has been carmelized. (John Lustig)

The toasted part of a marshmallow has been carmelized. (John Lustig)

Carmelization is one of the food browning processes, used to give foods a desirable color, flavor, and texture. It is also a process responsible for a burnt sugar flavor or blackening of food.

How Carmelization Works

Carmelization, like the Maillard reaction, is a form of non-enzymatic browning. It occurs when foods containing a high concentration of carbohydrates are heated above a certain temperature. The temperature at which carmelization occurs depends on the type of sugar. The rate at which carmelization proceeds depends on the acidity or pH of the food. Carmelization occurs more quickly at neutral pH than under either acidic or alkaline conditions.

Note fructose has a lower carmelization point than other sugars. Baked goods made using fructose brown more readily than those made using other sugars and often end up darker in color.

Carmelization Temperature of Different Sugars
Sugar Temperature
fructose 110°C, 230°F
galactose 160°C, 320°F
glucose 160°C, 320°F
sucrose (table sugar) 160°C, 320°F
maltose 180°C, 356°F

Carmelization is a process and not a single chemical reaction. As it occurs, water is removed from the carbohydrate. Isomerization and polymerization then take place. This is seen as melting, boiling, foaming, and darkening of sugar.

Carmelization is used to make candies, caramel, ghee, carmelized onions, and carmelized potatoes, among other foods. Foods that contain both carbohydrates and proteins brown from a combination of carmelization and the Maillard reaction.

How Carmelization Works in Sugar

Regular table sugar or sucrose is the best-studied carbohydrate for the carmelization process. It proceeds in the following manner:

  1. The disaccharide sucrose breaks down into the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. This is called a sucrose inversion.
  2. Condensation occurs, where the sugars lose water and react with each other, forming difructose-anhydride.
  3. Further dehydration occurs. Aldoses isomerize to ketoses.
  4. Molecules fragment and polymerize, producing the characteristic caramel color and browned sugar flavor associated with the process. The three main products from sucrose carmelization are the dehydration product caramelan (C12H18O9) and two polymers, carmelen (C36H50O25) and caramelin (C125H188O80).

Carmelization Flavors

Carmelization products have different flavors from each other. Here are some common compounds:

Diacetyl: Diacetyl forms during the first stages of caramelization. Diacetyl contributes a buttery or butterscotch flavor.
Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): Hydroxyacetylfuran (HAF) has a sweet aroma and flavor. Other furans have a nutty flavor.
Maltol: Maltol is the compound associated with the toasty flavor and aroma of freshly baked bread.
Esters and Lactones: These compounds have a sweet flavor, reminiscent of rum.

How to Make Glow in the Dark Blood

Make your own non-toxic glowing blood for a Halloween costume or for a party or theater production. (Timothy Allen)

Make your own non-toxic glowing blood for a Halloween costume or for a party or theater production. (Timothy Allen)

You can make glow in the dark blood for a Halloween costume or just because you want to decorate yourself with glowing blood. Here are several recipes for non-toxic glow in the dark blood.

Glowing Alien or Radioactive-Looking Blood

Mix equal parts white corn syrup and clear non-toxic school glue (the kind that washes off with water). Add liquid from a highlighter or some glow powder or paint from a craft store.
If you use liquid from a highlighter, you’ll get blood that will glow the color of the highlighter under black light. Not every highlighter glows, so test it before using it. If you use glow powder or paint from a craft store, your glow in the dark blood will glow when the lights are off, providing you “charged” the blood up by shining a bright light on it first. Glow powder typically glows yellowish green.

I had great luck with this glowing blood. It was very bright and washed off easily with warm water. It likely will stain clothes, so watch out for that.

Glowing Bright Blue Blood

Petroleum jelly, laundry detergent, and tonic water glow bright blue under a black light. The easiest way to make blue blood that glows under a black light is to drizzle liquid laundry detergent on yourself (which is not edible, so avoid getting this into your mouth). Tonic water with corn syrup will make a thin blood. You can tint the blood with food coloring, if you like. Petroleum jelly can be applied as a thick, non-dripping blood.
Glowing Red Blood

You can make red blood that glows red under a black light by either mixing pink highlighter liquid in with any of the fake blood recipes or by adding chlorophyll to a recipe. You may be able to purchase chlorophyll, which fluoresces red in ultraviolet light, or you can prepare it yourself by grinding spinach or Swiss chard with a small amount of alcohol (e.g., vodka) and pouring it through a coffee filter to get chlorophyll extract (use the part that stays on the filter, not the liquid).

You May Be a Chemist If (Chemist Characteristics)

You May Be a Chemist If... you wear safety goggles as a fashion statement. (Mollie Stratton)

You May Be a Chemist If… you wear safety goggles as a fashion statement. (Mollie Stratton)

Is it possible to tell you are a chemist just from the way you look or the things you do? Maybe it’s the safety goggles that you wear to cocktail parties or that subtle eau de organic lab odor that wafts in your wake. If you have a characteristic that identifies you as a chemist, share it!

You Might Be A Chemist

If you know all the elements on periodic table of elements by name, atomic weight, atomic number, and primary state.

— Aztec727

you may be a chemist if…

You may be a chemist if you get a step or two ahead of your teacher and set up a side experiment to aid in what he/she is teaching.

— Da

You may be a chemist if you…

Mix your cocktails in molar quantities and are aware of the meniscus of each each ingredient and calculate the energy of activation as you pour the ingredients into the shaker

— Jimi

Boiling water

You may be a chemist if you can’t stand the expression “A watched pot never boils”. It should be ” A watched pot and an unwatched pot boil at EXACTLY the same rate.

— Mei


The first time I took the ACT I got a 29 in science which surpassed my expected 26 in Math

— Alvaro Rubio

You are surely a chemist if….

you keep a picture of Madam curie on your desk, and it turns you on… If you named your first born after one of the lanthanides, and then you felt compelled to have the whole set…. When you had unexpected sixteenth child you just had to name him Actinium, and now you’re not sure how to stop. (of course this would tell that your wife is a chemist too for letting you do it) if you know that anal. chem. is not the title of a raunchy video. If you wonder what the lubricant in that condom is made from…

— Hosam ddeen

You may be…

You may be a chemist if your kids are named, in order, for the inert gases, and you also know that they really aren’t inert.


You may be….

You may be a chemist if instead of spring water your kitchen has bottled DI.


Chemistry and nature

If you are able to see all that nature has to offer and appreciate by trying to catalyse a better way of helping nature sustain its balance.


I may be a chemist because:

My favorite pinup poster is the periodic chart of the elements. I store my candy in an Erlenmeyer flask. I make my own litmus paper out of red cabbage and I make my own fertilizer and plant food enhancers from common chemicals and vitamins. I do magic using the old ancient alchemist type chemical reactions too. So, I guess, I may just be a chemist.


You may be a chemist if…

you don’t believe all free radicals are Democrats. or… should be put in prison. or… are escapees from a high security prison.

— John Lennox


The way you pronounce “unionized” unionized or un-ionized.

— John Carter

James S.

Isaac Asimov said you could always tell a chemist by their pronunciation of the word “unionized”.

— James S

You may be a chemist if….

You know more about chemistry than your teacher with a phD in Applied chemistry and are always correcting her during class.

— carbonic acid

Mix business-labor relations with …

how a solid dissolves in a solvent. I can be reading a news story about a labor group coming together and run across the word “unionized” and in my head it comes out as un-ionized. Asimov was right!

— Peter Millican

Pinup Pride

You may be a chemist if you have a framed 3 foot by 2 foot periodic table in your room.

— Greg D.

Hand Washing

A chemist is someone who washes his or her hands BEFORE they go to the lavatory!

— John Sloman

know it all

If you cant help but pretend you know it all, but you really are just observing and waiting for reactions to take place.

— Dana Graham

future chemists

you may be a chemist…… when your students accuse you of balancing equations as a hobby.

— sierra

future chemist

I teach high school chemistry and use a lot of household chemicals for experiments. I always experiment at home first and my son LOVES it!

— sierra


CHEMISTRY is not just FAITH in any THEORY, but OBSERVATIONS from EXPERIMENTS and CONCLUSION From OBSERVATIONS… So, If you are always curious to know, reason and see in STAGES beyond the physical, YOU CAN BE A ~CHEMIST~.

— Odeyemi Isaiah

Scared of drinks…

You may be a chemist if you are scared of drinks…. you do not know if it is a toxic chemical or drinking water and if it is a juice or a poisonous chemical

— Lukman

You may always…

called the selfish people as group 18 ; called the active people as group 1 …

— Ms. Sodium Chloride

Chemistry of life

You’re a chemist if… You see life as stages of development, as it is in reaction mechanism: step by step process that takes place for reactants to form product. Life mechanism!

— Ezekielsolomon


If you’ve ever referred to a fat person as sterically hindered…


You May Be a Chemist

If a mole isn’t something on your face or in your yard

— phi

You may be a PhD Chemist if…

You are currently a highly qualified underpaid temp worker (aka postdoc) and are desperately looking for a job.

— GW

wonder in the simple things

even boiling water fascinates you. Is it boiling at exactly 100C or what affect are impurities or the air pressure having on the boiling point?

— Sharon

You may be a chemist if..

you think it’s better to see the conical flasks everyday rather than microscopes or gear and springs.

— ShikinKern


If your recipe for chocolate chip cookies starts with, 1. 532.35 cm3 gluten 2. 4.9 cm3 NaHCO3 3. 4.9 cm3 refined halite 4. 236.6 cm3 partially hydrogenated tallow triglyceride 5. 177.45 cm3 crystalline C12H22O11 6. 177.45 cm3 unrefined C12H22O11

— BA Jones

you may be chemist if…

…you have small periodic table of elements in your wallet

— Ivona Croatia

you’re a chemist if..

if you know if reactions will take place or not..if you think of atoms as a crazzzzzzzzy thing bouncing around you..

— lee

If you are ready to dedicate your life

You may be a Genuine Chemist if you are ready to dedicate your time to Chemistry, willing to pay the price of making and breaking bonds.

— Opalade Adedamola Abraham

you may be a chemist if…

you always see things in the molecular level; answers the why it happened rather than the what happened..

— pi

You know you are..

A Forensic/Analytical Chemist, when you laugh at how they does Analysis in Lab when you’re watching CSI.

— Leon

You know you are..

A Organic Chemist if you count 1 to 10 by Methane,Ethane,Propane,Butane…Etc etc etc..

— Leon


if you read ‘unionized’ as ….. . . . . un-ion-nized instead of union-nized

— dadaluma

it’s fun

you always think about how something happen and how its start to happen

— sha

A Chemist !!

Everyone observes but a chemist will observe,experiment,analysis,after which he puts forth his findings. In summary a chemist finds out what others observe.

— Uhegwu Princewill

smelling stuff

Your are definately a chemist if you wave your hand everytime you want to smell something, instead of putting your nose right into it

— sara

Not a big drinker

You like the smell of ethanol, but you don’t like to drink a lot of alcohol

— mmm…ethanol

You may be a chemist if…

You aren’t a complete moron. Also, you wouldn’t be a chemist if you were overly bright, those positions are for physicists… considering the career field is more stable than chemistry fields.

—Guest lol

what gives me away is

when i make milk for my baby , the level of water in the bottle has to be exact (my eyes have to be level with the mark on the bottle) and the milk scoops have to be exactly filled and leveled .. any one else making milk has to do the exact steps or they will suffer 🙂

— mais

characteristic of a chemist

Always analytical even on simple things and not very quick to respond when ask the question, take a little time and think about it…

— precious

Atom Joke

Two atoms were walking down the road and one trips and falls. atom I, “Dude are you okay?” atom II, “No, I think I lost an electron?” atom I, “Are you sure?” atom II, “Yeah! I’m POSITIVE!”

— KB

you may be a chemist if…

You view volumes of liquids In milliliters instead of ounces.

— Lizzay

Tom Lehrer

You may be a chemist if you have memorized the lyrics to The Elements Song by Tom Lehrer, and bonus points if you can play using beakers, burners and various lab equipment. You may also be a chemist if the spelling of Bacon is Barium (Ba), Cobalt (Co), Nitrogen (N). You may also be a chemist if you know all 125 elements (yes, I said 125).

— Mr. Pirate

you could be a chemist if…

you could be a chemist if in 5th grade you memorize the first 40 periodic elements like me!

— k5masterpiece

You might be a chemist if..

You can look at another person, or yourself, and imagine them being composed of little C’s, H’s and O’s.

— Hunter

If you know everything

When you see yourself as workaholic and make new things happen often

— Matthew Ogunyinka


You may be a Chemist if you are able to perform test on simple home materials to distinguish them,e.g to distinguish water and alcohol

— Opalade Adedamola Abraham

Maybe a chemist if..

You make your own shower cleaner. My children don’t even ask anymore what’s that stuff in the fridge or why do you have baggies hanging from the clothes line.

— Brenda

….a chemist at last…

I eat chemistry, drink chemistry, urinate chemistry, gas chemistry, excrete chemistry….somehow everything i do is chemistry cos they are MATTER! what about u?

— qidasnamkul

You are an inorganic chemist if…

you dismiss everything else as organic chemistry (like me)!

— Chemicalinterest

Chemist’s Son

Johnny was a chemist’s son A chemist’s son no more What he thought was H2O was H2SO4

— Mike Broderick

Always wash your hands

You may be a chemist if you wash your hands BEFORE you use the bathroom.

— Rich

Fresh Air

You might be a chemist if you think fresh air smells bad.

— MegaTJ


You might be a chemist if you watch the anime FullMetal Alchemist just for the references to actual alchemy.

— Kisanath

You may be a chemist if

You use a high concentration acetone (none of that watery department store nail polish solution crap) to remove fake nails rather than going to the saloon and paying for someone to rip them off.

— dm

more coffee chemistry

You might be a chemist if, when you are forced to make instant coffee, you enjoy immensely the sound of the density change as the instant coffee dissolves, and notice that the change is a bit different when you dissolve in the sugar.


practice well

u might be a chemist if u find urself talking about chemistry most of the time and u find urself practicalising things often with them

— shevvy

you may be a chemist

if you watch the show called Big Bang Theory. EVERY WEEK!!!!!!

— Paul

chemist in kitchen

cooking in asian countries is an art for all. when someone cook in kitchen he/she have to mix different kinds of meterials in such away that we can take it. for example; if u mix huge amount of salt in ur curry ucann’t take it. so i think cooking is a chemistry and u can be a chemist in kitchen.


Inborn chemist

You can be chemist if mixing heating and waiting 2 see its result is inborn in u. Even ur playthings may constitute some domestic litters and u may be testing in their reactions with others.

— Baishali

You cook well..

A chemist can be a good cook. He can mix the ingredients in the correct ratio, heat them properly for he knows the hottest part of the flame. You can find him rinsing the utensils and saving energy, using a pressure cooker properly etc.

— Rekha Sachdeva

water chemist

Analysis of fully drinking water treatment as example tds, ph, and so on.

— vedshree


You can tell if a TV addict is a chemist by the shows she watches….CSI Miami, New York Trilogy..its all about the laboratory and the intricate investigative work

— Husna

Are you an organic chemist?

You can be an organic chemist if you are able to identify unknown organic compound

— Idris Umar

Laundry is a Science

You may be a chemist if you can remove stains scientifically and not hope for “washday miracles.”

— Lily

You just want to recite them with ease

You may be a chemist if you often arrange popular names in your favourite sports to suit some orderly arrangement in chemistry like the Diatomic elements; the Halogens; Electrochemical series for metals=K(Kelvin) Na(Nolan) Ca(Can) Mg(Make) Al(All) Zn(Zidane) Fe(Fans) Si(Silent) P(Provided) H(He) Cu(Can) Hg(Hug) Ag(All) Au(African) Pt(Players).

— chiedozie


You do it on the table periodically. (Because all chemists do it on the table, periodically!)

— Karen Razz

“I got to see that label”

If you are always prone to read the nutritional facts of snacks when you visit the grocery store.

— Oladele

must have that cup of joe

You may be a chemist if you break the carafe to the coffee maker and quickly create a filtration device (beaker, filter, and rubber band to hold filter paper) to get that warm brown liquid to start your day.

— chemengin

You might be a Chemist if….

You refuse to buy anything at the grocery that doesn’t have the chemicals used to make it listed on the label.


Experiments in the garage

You combine ingredients in a recipe and think Stoichi. (Or just the fact that you took the time to respond) 🙂

— Glenni

You May Be A Chemist If…

You view the bathroom as my laboratory. You view kids or teens as specimens, experiments or lab rats.

— Liz

chemist in water chemistry

analysis of drinking water checking of residual chlorine, complete analysis of potable water as well as sewage analysis.

— naseem zaman

Ingredient labels

You may be a chemist if you read the labels on the food packages before you purchase them, understand what they mean, and often say “I wouldn’t feed that to a lab rat.”

— Ross

You May Be a Chemist If

You are having eyes like an eagle, Nose like a dog, Patience like a donkey,. and Brain like Emil Fischer, Woodward, ……


it’s time to get things started…

Dr. Bunsen Honeydew and Beaker were your favorite Muppet Show characters.

— Marsha

dissolve black pepper

You may be a chemist if it annoys when a chef on the cooking channel requires that you dissolve black pepper in a recipe.

— Rich

you may be a chemist

you may be chemist when you read ingredient on the soft drinks and other daily used products.

— nasreen

chemists what gives you away

you walk out of the room when a physicist walks in

— edwardo cordelliero


You might be a chemist if you answer “Silver, Neon, Sulfur” to the question ‘How do you spell Agnes?’

— Jorge

Chemistry in the air

You probably are a chemist when you smell someone’s perfume and you think of aromatic molecules floating in the air….and maybe you can even see them!

— Joaquin

Salty in Kitchen

You may be a chemist if you can make a dish with right combination of ingredients and if you can add the correct ‘pinch’ of salt.

— Pradeep

cooked results

You are good in cooking up results !! Some chemists, bad chemists, habitually cook up analytical results to suit their research aims.

— veegee

Chemistry Mom

You may be a chemist if you sing the alkanes to the tune of Camptown Ladies to your kids instead of regular nursery rhymes (Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, Do-Da, Do-Da..)!!! But hey, my son remembered it and won an award in chemistry, 1st year!

— Dr. Debbie

Flipping over Veggie Tales

You may be a chemist if, as your son is watching an episode of Veggietales, you stop and rewind about 15 times until you confirm that one of the split second screens shows Avogadro’s number! (check it out – it’s on the Silly Songs DVD)


You May Be A Chemist If…

You refer to the reasons for combining items in a recipe in terms of their chemical interactions – not only in the classroom, but at home as well.



chemistry is my life my love i love it so i do my exp all time and i in my lab all time

— sawy

You may be a chemist if

When pouring from a ground glass stoppered bottle, you hold the stopper in your left fingers and do not put it down. You call mils, cm3. You can remember the first line of the transition elements. You know the three laws of thermodynamics.

— chartered

You may be a chemist if

Touch the tip of your spoon to the cup rim to remove liquid. You are a convergent thinker, who thinks to a conclusion

— chartered

No Spills

…you habitually wipe down all the surfaces in your kitchen to ensure there are no unidentified spilled fluids anywhere. …if anything not in its original container has a prominent and clear label on it.

— Annie

You may be a chemist if…

when cooking you set your liquid measuring cup on the counter and then get down on one knee to read the meniscus.

— herbalmomma

Just a science grunt

You can make the best natural soda pop in Erlenmeyer flasks in the lab for your visitors using dry ice!

— Patricia


you see chocolate and think carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, cobalt (which is what draws us magnetically to the stuff), lanthanum, tellurium.

— kidstrek

you know chemistry principles by heart

It is not what appears outside that matters most; but what you know and how u can demonstrate such knowledge that count the most. Being a chemist is a wonderful experience as you can give simple explanations to what are happening around you since all things that surround you are chemically-interrelated. That’s make life on earth wonderful as we appreciate the amazing creative works of an awesome and living God!


Fireworks Geek

You may be a chemist if an especially nice firework elicits a response of “ooh, aah… strontium with nice titanium sparkles!”

— Todd

Coffee Chemistry

You may be a chemist if you measure double distilled deionized water for your coffee in milliliters, which you use because you like the flavor of the chemicals it leaches from the glass.

— Aza

How Much Does a Gallon of Water Weigh? Easy Calculation

Question: How much does a gallon of water weigh?

Ever wonder how much a gallon of water weighs? A US gallon is 8.34 lbs or 3.78 kg. (David Mulder)

Ever wonder how much a gallon of water weighs? A US gallon is 8.34 lbs or 3.78 kg. (David Mulder)

Answer: A US gallon of water weighs 8.34 lbs or 3.78 kg at 62 °F (17 °C). An imperial gallon (UK) weighs 10.022 lbs or 4.546 kg, at its most dense temperature, which is 2.20456 lbs / L at 4 °C or 39 °F.

Ballpark Calculation (for all temperatures)

1 gallon is about 3.75 liters
1 liters = 1 kilogram (density of water is 1 kg/liter)
1 kg is about 2.2 lbs
so, 3.75 kg is about 8.25 lbs and 1 gallon is about 8.25 lbs

Three Different Units of Gallon

It makes a difference which unit of gallon you are using. There are two US definitions of gallon. The US liquid gallon (most commonly used) is defined as 231 cubic inches, which is 3.785 liters, and weighs 8.344 lbs at its highest density.

The US dry gallon is defined as 1/8th of a US bushel, which is 268.8025 cubic inches or 4.405 L. The weight of a US dry gallon is 9.711 lbs of water at its highest density.

The UK gallon or imperial gallon originally was defined as 10 lbs of water, but the modern definition is exactly 4.54609 L or 10.02 lbs of water at its maximum density.

Effect of Water Temperature on Weight

Cold water is more dense than ice or than warm water or liquid just above freezing. This is an unusual property of the substance, resulting from hydrogen bonding. So, a gallon of warm water would weigh slightly less than a gallon of cold water. The exact difference would depend on the temperatures in question, but it doesn’t affect the value by much.

Of course, gravity affects weight too, so a gallon of water (or anything else) would weigh more on Jupiter than on Earth, while it would weigh less on the Moon than Earth.

Easy Way To Remember the Weight of Water

While you’ll want to keep the exact volume definitions in mind for scientific calculations, for everyday use you can remember the weight of water using the simple rhyme: A pint’s a pound, the world round.

The saying refers to the rough equivalence between 16 fluid ounces (a pint) and 16 ounces avoirdupois weight. A gallon is 4 quarts or 8 points, so a gallon weighs approximately 8 lbs.

Impulse and Momentum – Physics Example Problem

Desktop Momentum Balls Toy

This model of a common desktop toy shows the forces acting on the raised ball. The principles of impulse and momentum show how the momentum is transferred to each ball and the process repeats.

Impulse and momentum are physical concepts that are easily seen from Newton’s Laws of Motion.

Start with this equation of motion for constant acceleration.

v = v0 + at

v = velocity
v0 = initial velocity
a = acceleration
t = time

If you rearrange the equation, you get

v – v0 = at

Newton’s second law deals with with force.

F = ma

F = force
m = mass
a = acceleration

solve this for a and get

a = F/m

Stick this into the velocity equation and get

v – v0 = (F/m)t

Multiply both sides by m

mv – mv0 = Ft

The left side of the equation deals with momentum (often denoted by a lower-case p) and the right side is impulse (often denoted by an upper-case letter J).

Mass times velocity is known as momentum and force applied over time is called impulse.

Impulse and Momentum Example Problem

Question: A 50 kg mass is sitting on a frictionless surface. An unknown constant force pushes the mass for 2 seconds until the mass reaches a velocity of 3 m/s.

a) What is the initial momentum of the mass?
b) What is the final momentum of the mass?
c) What was the force acting on the mass?
d) What was the impulse acting on the mass?

Impulse and Momentum Example Problem

Part a) What is the initial momentum?

Momentum is mass times velocity. Since the mass is at rest, the initial velocity is 0 m/s.

momentum = m⋅v = (50 kg)⋅(0 m/s) = 0 kg⋅m/s

Part b) What is the final momentum?

After the force is finished acting on the mass, the velocity is 3 m/s.

momentum = m⋅v = (50 kg)⋅(3 m/s) = 150 kg⋅m/s

Part c) What was the force acting on the mass?

mv – mv0 = Ft

From parts a and b, we know mv0 = 0 kg⋅m/s and mv = 150 kg⋅m/s.

150 kg⋅m/s – 0 kg⋅m/s = Ft
150 kg⋅m/s = Ft

Since the force was in effect over 3 seconds, t = 3 s.

150 kg⋅m/s = F ⋅ 3s
F = (150 kg⋅m/s) / 3 s
F = 50 kg⋅m/s2

Unit Fact: kg⋅m/s2 can be denoted by the derived SI unit Newton (symbol N)

F = 50 N

Part d) What was the impulse acting on the mass?

The impulse is the force multiplied by the time passed. It is also equal to the change in momentum over the same time period.

Ft = 50 N ⋅ 3 s
Ft = 150 Ns or 150 kg⋅m/s

The impulse was 150 kg⋅m/s.

These problems are relatively simple as long as you keep your units straight. Impulse and momentum should have the same units: mass⋅velocity or force⋅time. Check your units when you check your answer.

Another possible way to cause errors is to confuse your vector directions. Velocity and Force are both vector quantities. In this example, the mass was pushed in the direction of the final velocity. If another force pushed in the opposite direction to slow down the mass, the force would have a negative value compared to the velocity vector.

If you found this helpful, check out other Physics Example Problems.

Neon Rainbow Periodic Table Wallpaper

This rainbow periodic table wallpaper is a colorful addition to our collection of wallpapers.

Neon Rainbow Periodic Table WallpaperThe periodic table contains each element’s number, symbol, name, and atomic mass. It also includes the four new elements: nihonium (113), moscovium (115), tennessine (117), and oganesson (118).

Thiswallpaper is 5760 x 3240 pixels and can be scaled down to look great on any HD device. Click the image to view the full-sized image, or download a copy directly.

We’ve partnered with Redbubble to make posters of many of our periodic tables. This one is no exception. Check it out!  They’ve even got t-shirts, pillows, and coffee cups,

Periodic Table For Kids With 118 Elements

These two “periodic table for kids” tables are simplified tables containing each element’s atomic number, symbol, name and atomic mass rounded to two decimal places. These two tables include the four new elements: nihonium (113), moscovium (115), tennessine (117), and oganesson (118).

Color Periodic Table for Kids

Color Periodic Table For Kids - 2017 EditionThis first table is a color version where the colors correspond to the different element groups.

For easier printing, a PDF is available. The table is optimized to fit on a single 8½ x 11″ sheet of paper.

Black and White Periodic Table for Kids

Printable Periodic Table For Kids - 2017 EditionThis table is better for those without access to color printers or wishes to leave coloring to the student.

As with the color version, a PDF is available for downloading and printing.

If you enjoy these periodic tables, check out our many other periodic tables.