This is a table of density of common materials. Density is a measure of the amount of matter per unit of volume. This is the mass per volume of a substance. Generally, gases are less dense than liquids, which are less dense than solids. However, there are many exceptions. For example, ice (a solid) is less dense than water (a liquid). A few gases are heavier than liquids. For example, water is lighter than tungsten hexafluoride gas.
Densities of Common Substances
This table cites density values from lowest density to highest. The SI unit of density is kg/m3. To convert density in g/cm3 to kg/m3, simply multiply by 1000.
|Material||Density (g/cm3)||State of Matter|
|hydrogen (at STP)||0.00009||gas|
|helium (at STP)||0.000178||gas|
|carbon monoxide (at STP)||0.00125||gas|
|nitrogen (at STP)||0.001251||gas|
|air (at STP)||0.001293||gas|
|carbon dioxide (at STP)||0.001977||gas|
|ethanol (grain alcohol)||0.810||liquid|
|water at 20°C||0.998||liquid|
|water at 4°C||1.000||liquid|
|white dwarf star||2. 1 x 106||solid|
|atomic nucleus||2.3 x 1013||solid|
|black hole (4 solar mass)||1 x 1015||solid|
Factors That Affect Density
Density depends on temperature and pressure. It also depends on the way atoms stack together in solids. Some elements have many allotropes or forms. For example, graphite and diamond are both solid forms of pure carbon, but they have different densities and other properties.
The Lightest and Heaviest Elements
Hydrogen is the lightest (least dense) element on the periodic table. This is true even though hydrogen exists as a diatomic gas, while helium is a monatomic gas. The heaviest element on the periodic table is osmium. However, under certain conditions, iridium might be more dense than osmium. It’s possible some synthetic radioactive elements could be even heavier, but their density has not been measured.
- IUPAC (December 1, 2018). Periodic Table of Elements.
- WolframAlpha. “Density of the Earth.”