Titanium Facts

Titanium is the 22nd element of the periodic table. These titanium facts contain chemical and physical data along with general information and history.

Element cell for Titanium
Titanium Periodic Table Cell

Basic Titanium Facts

Name: Titanium

Atomic Number: 22

Element Symbol: Ti

Group: 4

Period: 4

Block: d

Element Family: Transition Metal

Atomic Mass: 47.867(1)

Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d24s2
Full: 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s(full)

Discovery: William Gregor in 1791

Reverend William Gregor was an amature geologist who found a grainy, black sand in a stream near his parish of Mannacan in Cornwall, England. Further investigation showed the sand was part iron, part some unknown metal. He named his new metal manaccanite after his parish. He reported his discovery to the Royal Geological Society and moved on to other things.

Four years later, German chemist Martin Klaproth believed he found a new metal in the mineral rutile. He named his metal titanium after the Titans of Greek mythology. Klaproth learned of Gregor’s discovery and found Gregor’s manaccanite was identical to his titanium.

Name Origin: Titanium is named after the Titans of Greek mythology.


Natural scandium is comprised of five stable isotopes: 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti and 50Ti. Twenty one radioactive isotopes exist ranging from 38Ti to 63Ti.

Titanium-46 is a stable isotope containing 24 neutrons. 8.25% of natural titanium is titanium-46.

Titanium-47 is a stable isotope containing 25 neutrons. 7.44% of natural titanium is titanium-47.

Titanium-48 is a stable isotope containing 26 neutrons. 73.72% of natural titanium is titanium-48.

Titanium-49 is a stable isotope containing 27 neutrons. 5.41% of natural titanium is titanium-49.

Titanium-50 is a stable isotope containing 28 neutrons. 5.18% of natural titanium is titanium-50.

Titanium Crystal Bar
Bar of ultra-high purity titanium crystals. Credit: Heinrich Pnoik/Creative Commons

Physical Data

Density:  4.506  g/cm3

Melting Point: 1941 K ​(1668 °C, ​3034 °F)

Boiling Point: 3560 K ​(3287 °C, ​5949 °F)

State at 20ºC: Solid

Heat of Fusion: 14.15 kJ/mol

Heat of Vaporization: 425 kJ/mol

Molar Heat Capacity: 25.060 J/mol·K

Titanium atom
Electron shell configuration for titanium.

Atomic Data

Atomic Radius: 1.47 Å (empirical)

Covalent Radius: 1.60 Å

Van der Waals Radius:  1.48 Å

Electron Affinity: 7.622 kJ/mol

Electronegativity: 1.54

1st Ionization Energy: 658.813 kJ/mol

2nd Ionization Energy: 1309.837 kJ/mol

3rd Ionization Energy: 2652.546 kJ/mol

4th Ionization Energy: 4174.651 kJ/mol

5th Ionization Energy: 9581 kJ/mol

6th Ionization Energy: 11532.89 kJ/mol

7th Ionization Energy: 13585.1 kJ/mol

8th Ionization Energy: 16441.1 kJ/mol

Oxidation States: +4, +3 (common), +2, +1 (uncommon)

Aqueous titanium(III) chloride. Many titanium(III) compounds have this distinct violet color. Credit: W. Oelen/Creative Commons

Fun Titanium Facts

  • Titanium is a hard, shiny, strong metal at room temperature.
  • Titanium is used in many alloys. Titanium has the largest strength to density ratio of all the metals. Titanium adds high temperature resistance to alloys in addition to lightweight strength.
  • Titanium resists corrosion. Titanium is used to protect the hulls of ships and submarines from seawater.
  • Titanium is used in joint replacement surgeries because titanium bonds well with bones and is non-toxic to other tissues.
  • Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust (0.63% by mass).
  • Titanium is the seventh most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust.
  • Pure titanium proved difficult to isolate. Pure titanium metal was not produced until 1910 by New Zealand metallurgist Matthew A. Hunter.
  • Titanium(III) compounds are often violet in color.
  • One of the largest uses of titanium is in paint. Titanium(IV) oxide (or titanium dioxide) in paint makes a bright white color.
  • Titanium(IV) oxide is used in sunscreen products. Small particles of titanium oxide are invisible on skin but block UV light.
  • Titanium is a relatively inert substance. This makes it ideal for hypoallergenic jewelry to be made from titanium.

Learn more about elements on the periodic table.