Table of Valences of the Elements 6


A lithium atom has one outer shell electron, so it's usual valence is +1, but it can lose the electron and have a valence of -1.

A lithium atom has one outer shell electron, so it’s usual valence is +1, but it can lose the electron and have a valence of -1.

This is a table of the valences of the elements. Valence is also known as oxidation state. The number reflects how many electrons an atom will accept (negative number) or donate (positive number) to form a chemical bond. The most stable valence is one that fills or half-fills an atom’s electron shell. Remember, shells don’t neatly stack on top of each other, so the valence may not be the same as the total number of electrons in the outer shell. The most common valences are in BOLD. Values in italics are predicted theoretical values.

 

 NUMBER SYMBOLELEMENTVALENCE
1HHydrogen1, 0, -1
2HeHelium0
3LiLithium1, -1
4BeBeryllium2
5BBoron3, 2, 1
6CCarbon4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -4
7NNitrogen5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3
8OOxygen2, 1, 0, -1, -2
9FFluorine0, -1
10NeNeon0
11NaSodium1, -1
12MgMagnesium2
13AlAluminum3, 1
14SiSilicon4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -4
15PPhosphorus5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3
16SSulfur6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2
17ClChlorine6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2
18ArArgon0
19KPotassium1, -1
20CaCalcium2
21ScScandium3, 2, 1
22TiTitanium4, 3, 2, 0, -1, -2
23VVanadium5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2
24CrChromium6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4
25MnManganese7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3
26FeIron6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2
27CoCobalt5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1
28NiNickel6, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1
29CuCopper4, 3, 2, 1, 0
30ZnZinc2, 1, 0
31GaGallium3, 2, 1
32GeGermanium4, 3, 2, 1
33AsArsenic5, 3, 2, -3
34SeSelenium6, 4, 2, 1, -2
35BrBromine7, 5, 4, 3, 1, 0, -1
36KrKrypton2, 0
37RbRubidium1, -1
38SrStrontium2
39YYttrium3, 2
40ZrZirconium4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -2
41NbNiobium5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -3
42MoMolybdenum6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2
43TcTechnetium7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -3
44RuRuthenium8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -2
45RhRhodium6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1
46PdPalladium4, 2, 0
47AgSilver3, 2, 1, 0
48CdCadmium2, 1
49InIndium3, 2, 1
50SnTin4, 2, -4
51SbAntimony5, 3, -3
52TeTellurium6, 5, 4, 2, 1, -2
53IIodine7, 5, 3, 1, 0, -1
54XeXenon8, 6, 4, 3, 2, 0
55CsCesium1, -1
56BaBarium2
57LaLanthanum3, 2
58CeCerium4, 3, 2
59PrPraseodymium4, 3, 2
60NdNeodymium4, 3, 2
61PmPromethium3
62SmSamarium3, 2
63EuEuropium3, 2
64GdGadolinium3, 2, 1
65TbTerbium4, 3, 1
66DyDysprosium4, 3, 2
67HoHolmium3, 2
68ErErbium3
69TmThulium3, 2
70YbYtterbium3, 2
71LuLutetium3
72HfHafnium4, 3, 2, 1
73TaTantalum5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -3
74WTungsten6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -4
75ReRhenium7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -3
76OsOsmium8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -2
77IrIridium6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1
78PtPlatinum6, 5, 4, 2, 0
79AuGold7, 5, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1
80HgMercury2, 1
81TlThallium3, 1
82PbLead4, 2
83BiBismuth5, 3, 1, -3
84PoPolonium6, 4, 2, -2
85AtAstatine7, 5, 3, 1, -1
86RnRadon2, 0
87FrFrancium1
88RaRadium2
89AcActinium3
90ThThorium4, 3, 2
91PaProtactinium5, 4, 3
92UUranium6, 5, 4, 3, 2
93NpNeptunium7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2
94PuPlutonium7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2
95AmAmericium7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2
96CmCurium6, 5, 4, 3, 2
97BkBerkelium4, 3, 2
98CfCalifornium5, 4, 3, 2
99EsEinsteinium4, 3, 2
100FmFermium4, 3, 2
101MdMendelevium3, 2, 1
102NoNobelium3, 2
103LrLawrencium3, 2
104RfRutherfordium4, 3
105DbDubnium5, 4
106SgSeaborgium6, 5, 4
107BhBohrium7, 6, 5, 4, 3
108HsHassium8, 7, 4, 3, 2
109MtMeitnerium6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1
110DsDarmstadtium6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1
111RgRoentgenium3, -1
112CnCopernicium2, 1
113NhNihonium1
114FlFlerovium2
115McMoscovium3, 1
116LvLivermorium4, 2
117TsTennessineunknown
118OgOganesson8, 6, 4, 2

Periodic Table With Element Valences

This information is available on a Color Periodic Table of the Elements or a Black and White version. A simpler version listing only the most common valence charges is also available.

References

  • Brown, I. David (2016). Inorganic Chemistry: The Bond Valence Model (2nd ed.). International Union of Crystallography. Oxford: Oxford Science Publications.
  • Lange, Norbert A. (1952). Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry (8th ed.). Handbook Publishers.
  • O’Dwyer, M.F.; Kent, J.E.; Brown, R. D. (1978). Valency. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • Smart, Lesley E.; Moore, Elaine A. (2016). Solid State Chemistry – An Introduction (4th ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

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