Monthly Archives: April 2020


Clouds may look light and fluffy, but the average cloud weighs over a million pounds!
Have you ever wondered how much a cloud weighs? Obviously, the answer depends on the size and type of cloud. An average cumulus cloud weighs about 1.1 million pounds. So, while a cloud may appear fluffy, it’s certainly not light! Here’s a look at how to calculate the weight of […]

How Much Does a Cloud Weigh?


Epsom salt crystals readily absorb food coloring.
Epsom salt crystals are among the safest and easiest crystals to grow. The natural crystals are clear, but they readily accept dye from food coloring. Here’s what you need to know to grow these crystals yourself. Epsom Salt Crystal Materials All you need is Epsom salt, water, and a bit […]

How to Grow Epsom Salt Crystals


A solution is a homogeneous chemical mixture.
In chemistry, a solution is defined as a type of homogeneous mixture consisting of two or more substances in which one substance (the solute) is dissolved in another (the solvent). Because the mixture is homogeneous, a sample of a solution has the same appearance and concentration as any other sample. […]

Solution Definition in Chemistry



Liquid Elements on the Periodic Table
Most of the elements of the periodic table are solids, a few are gases, and there are only two liquid elements at room temperature and pressure. A total of six liquid elements exist between room temperature and body temperature. There are eight liquid elements, if you include predictions for recently-discovered […]

Liquid Elements on the Periodic Table


Potassium permanganate volcano near end of eruption
The potassium permanganate volcano is a classic chemistry demonstration that produces smoke, colored flames and sparks, a glow resembling lava, and colored ash. This type of chemical volcano captivates students while illustrating principles of redox reactions, oxidation, exothermic reactions, the effect of surface area on reaction rate, decomposition reactions, and […]

Potassium Permanganate Volcano




Most phosphorescent objects are green because that pigment glows the brightest.
Phosphorescence is light released by matter after exposure to electromagnetic radiation, usually ultraviolet light. The energy source kicks an electron of an atom from a lower energy state into an “excited” higher energy state; then the electron releases the energy in the form of visible light (luminescence) when it falls […]

What Is Phosphorescence? Definition and Examples


A green sky indicates a powerful thunderstorm that may produce a tornado.
It’s true the sky can turn green before a tornado. As a Nebraska native, I’ve witnessed the phenomenon firsthand numerous times. While thunderstorm clouds may appear green or yellow before a tornado, they may also turn these colors before a hail storm. It’s also possible for the sky to turn […]

Why Is the Sky Green Before a Tornado?