Todd Helmenstine


About Todd Helmenstine

Todd Helmenstine is the physicist/mathematician who creates most of the images and PDF files found on sciencenotes.org. Nearly all of the graphics are created in Adobe Illustrator, Fireworks and Photoshop. Todd also writes many of the example problems and general news articles found on the site.


Today in Science History – February 19 – Ferdinand Reich   Recently updated !

February 19 is Ferdinand Reich’s birthday. Reich was a German chemist who co-discovered the element indium with Hieronymus Richter. Reich was searching for thallium in some of the local zinc ores and isolated an unknown substance that appeared to be an element with the same chemical properties of thallium but […]

Ferdinand Reich

Harry Brearley

Today in Science History – February 18 – Stainless Steel

February 18 is Harry Brearley’s birthday. Brearley was an English metallurgist who discovered “rustless steel” or stainless steel. Brearley was searching for a new steel to use to minimize the corrosion of gun barrels but could still resist high temperatures and pressures associated with firing a gun. He discovered that […]


Today in Science History – February 17 – Friedrich Beilstein and the Beilstein Database

February 17 is Friedrich Beilstein’s birthday. Beilstein was the Russian chemist who originally wrote Handbuch der Organischen Chemie or Handbook of Organic Chemistry. This organic chemical reaction handbook was published in 1881 and originally contained information on 1,500 different organic compounds. It would grow larger with each edition even to the […]

Friedrich Konrad Beilstein

Galileo Galilei

Today in Science History – February 15 – Galileo Galilei

February 15 is Galileo Galilei’s birthday. Galileo was an Italian natural philosopher who was the key figure at the beginning of the scientific revolution and made several major contributions to its progress. Before Galileo, science was not considered a profession. Typically, people who did ‘science’ were considered natural philosophers and […]