Todd Helmenstine


About Todd Helmenstine

Todd Helmenstine is the physicist/mathematician who creates most of the images and PDF files found on sciencenotes.org. Nearly all of the graphics are created in Adobe Illustrator, Fireworks and Photoshop. Todd also writes many of the example problems and general news articles found on the site.

disk of ice
When a substance changes its state of matter, it takes a specific amount of energy to complete the change. When the phase change is between solid and liquid, the amount of energy per unit mass is called the heat of fusion. These heat of fusion example problems will how to […]

Heat of Fusion Example Problem


Molten Glass
Specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass needed to increase the temperature of a material by one degree Celsius or Kelvin. These three specific heat example problems will show how to find the specific heat of a material or other information involving the specific heat. Specific Heat […]

Specific Heat Example Problem


Science Word Search
Science has many branches. This science word search contains the names of 30 different branches of science. Find the words from the list forward and backward in vertical, horizontal, and diagonal directions. The puzzle is optimized to fit on a standard 8.5″x11″ sheet of paper, but it fits nicely on […]

Science Disciplines Word Search



Ruler to convert miles to km
Miles and kilometers ( km ) are both units of length usually used to measure out large traveling distances. The km is an SI unit defined as 1000 meters. A mile is an English unit set to be equal to 5280 feet. The conversion factor between miles and meters was […]

Convert Miles to Km Example Problem


This colored periodic table is a brightly colored periodic table suitable for printing. The table contains all 118 known elements and each element’s number, symbol, name, and atomic mass. The color scheme shows the different element groups and is light enough to write in any other useful information or notes you […]

Colored Periodic Table – Printable Periodic Table