Todd Helmenstine


About Todd Helmenstine

Todd Helmenstine is the physicist/mathematician who creates most of the images and PDF files found on sciencenotes.org. Nearly all of the graphics are created in Adobe Illustrator, Fireworks and Photoshop. Todd also writes many of the example problems and general news articles found on the site.


Rita Levi-Montalcini
April 22 is Rita Levi-Montalcini’s birthday. Levi-Montalcini was an Italian neurologist who made several discoveries of how cells divide and form new cells with different functionality. Levi-Montalcini began her career in science wanting to be a doctor. She graduated with an M.D. from the University of Turin in 1936 and took a […]

Today in Science History – April 22 – Rita Levi-Montalcini


Percy Williams Bridgman
April 21 is Percy W. Bridgman’s birthday. Bridgman was an American physicist known for his work in high-pressure physics. Bridgman began his career studying the effects of high pressure on matter as a professor at Harvard. During a repair of his equipment, he came up with an idea to improve the seal […]

Today in Science History – April 21 – Percy W. ...


Franz Karl Achard
April 20 marks the passing of Franz Karl Achard. Archard was a French natural philosopher who discovered how to get sugar from beets on an industrial scale. Napoleon’s defeat in Egypt caused the British navy to embargo cargo from reaching French ports. Any cargo ship which challenged this found their ship […]

Today in Science History – April 20 – Franz Karl ...



Glenn Seaborg
April 19 is Glenn T. Seaborg’s birthday. Seaborg was an American chemist who discovered ten of the transuranium elements and over 100 different isotopes. Seaborg also proposed the actinide group arrangement for the periodic table. These elements were plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and element 106. Element […]

Today in Science History – April 19 – Glenn T. ...


Albert Einstein
April 18 marks the passing of one of the most influential scientists of the 20th Century, Albert Einstein. Einstein started his career as a technical assistant at a Swiss Patent office in 1901. While working there, he obtained his Doctorate and published four papers on the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, […]

Today in Science History – April 18 – Albert Einstein