Cosmic Rays Explained   Recently updated !


Cosmic Rays Definition

Cosmic rays are high-energy particles originating from outer space that travel through the universe at nearly the speed of light. They consist predominantly of protons and atomic nuclei and fall into two main types: primary and secondary cosmic rays. Despite being called “rays,” they are actually particles, a misnomer stemming from historical reasons. (Light from cosmic sources, including x-rays and gamma radiation, is cosmic radiation.)

Discovery and Naming of Cosmic Rays

The story of cosmic rays begins in the early 20th century. In 1912, Austrian physicist Victor Hess conducted a series of balloon experiments measuring ionizing radiation at various altitudes. Hess discovered that the intensity of radiation increased with altitude, suggesting an extraterrestrial origin. This finding led to the term “cosmic rays,” coined by American physicist Robert Millikan in the 1920s. Although initially thought to be electromagnetic radiation (hence the term “rays”), subsequent research revealed that cosmic rays are actually high-energy particles. Hess received the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery.

Origin and Sources of Cosmic Rays

Cosmic rays originate from a variety of sources within and beyond our galaxy. Primary cosmic rays, which directly strike the Earth’s atmosphere, are primarily composed of protons and heavier nuclei. They are believed to come from:

  1. Supernovae: Exploding stars that accelerate particles to high energies.
  2. Active Galactic Nuclei: Centers of galaxies with supermassive black holes, emitting vast amounts of energy.
  3. Solar Flares: Eruptions on the sun that release streams of charged particles.
  4. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Extremely energetic explosions in distant galaxies.

Interaction with the Atmosphere and Matter

When primary cosmic rays enter the Earth’s atmosphere, they collide with nuclei of atmospheric gases, producing a cascade of secondary particles. This process, known as a particle shower, includes a wide variety of particles such as pions, muons, electrons, and neutrinos. Secondary cosmic rays are the particles that result from these interactions and reach the Earth’s surface.

Primary and Secondary Cosmic Rays

  • Primary Cosmic Rays: These are the high-energy particles originating from space. They consist mainly of protons (about 90%), helium nuclei (alpha particles), and heavier elements.
  • Secondary Cosmic Rays: These result from the interaction of primary cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere. They include a variety of particles such as muons, which penetrate deep into the Earth, and neutrinos, which rarely interact with matter.

Particle Showers

When primary cosmic rays enter the Earth’s atmosphere they interact with atmospheric nuclei and produce a series of complex reactions known as particle showers. There are two main types of showers: electromagnetic showers and hadronic showers.

Initial Interaction

  1. Primary Cosmic Ray Collision: A primary cosmic ray, such as a high-energy proton, collides with a nucleus in the upper atmosphere (typically nitrogen or oxygen). This collision occurs at very high energies, often in the range of giga-electron volts (GeV) to tera-electron volts (TeV).
  2. Creation of Secondary Particles: The collision results in the creation of a variety of secondary particles. The primary products of this interaction are pions (π+, π, π0), kaons (K), and other mesons, as well as baryons such as protons and neutrons. This marks the beginning of a hadronic shower.

Hadronic Shower

  1. Pion Decay: Charged pions are unstable and decay quickly. The decay of charged pions typically produces muons and neutrinos.
  2. Muon Propagation: Muons are relatively stable and travel significant distances through the atmosphere, even into the Earth’s surface. They eventually decay into electrons or positrons and additional neutrinos.
  3. Neutron Interaction: Neutrons from in the initial collision or subsequent interactions induce further reactions, contributing to the continuation of the hadronic shower. They interact with other nuclei, producing additional mesons and baryons.

Electromagnetic Shower

  1. Production of π0 Mesons: Neutral pions (π0) from the initial collision decay almost immediately into gamma rays.
  2. Pair Production and Bremsstrahlung: The gamma rays resulting from π0 decay undergo pair production when they interact with the electromagnetic field of nuclei, creating electron-positron pairs. These high-energy electrons and positrons, in turn, produce more gamma rays through bremsstrahlung radiation as they are decelerated by atmospheric nuclei.
  3. Cascade Effect: This process of pair production and bremsstrahlung repeats, leading to an electromagnetic cascade. The number of particles multiplies rapidly, creating a dense shower of electrons, positrons, and gamma rays.

Detection of Cosmic Rays

Detecting cosmic rays involves sophisticated equipment and various techniques:

  • Ground-Based Detectors: Instruments like the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina use large arrays of detectors spread over vast areas to capture extensive air showers produced by cosmic rays.
  • Balloon and Satellite Experiments: Instruments like the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station and the Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (SuperTIGER) carried by balloons measure cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere and space.
  • Cherenkov Telescopes: These telescopes detect the faint blue light (Cherenkov radiation) produced when cosmic ray particles travel faster than the speed of light in a medium such as water or air.

Are Cosmic Rays Dangerous?

Cosmic rays pose several risks, especially in space travel. There are also risks with flying or living in high-altitude locations, but the magnetosphere provides some protection. Risks apply to both living organisms and to electronics.

  • Radiation Exposure: High-energy cosmic rays damage biological tissues and increase cancer risk. Astronauts on long missions, such as a trip to Mars, risk exposure to significant levels of cosmic radiation. For the most part, air travel and high-altitude situations are less dangerous, but long-term exposure increases the risk.
  • Electronics Malfunctions: Cosmic rays can cause single-event upsets (SEUs) in electronic devices, potentially leading to malfunctions in satellites and other space-based technologies. SEUs also occur in aircraft. Spacecraft, aircraft, and high-altitude facilities minimize the risk with robust systems and redundancies.

Scientific Insights from Cosmic Rays

Cosmic rays are invaluable in astrophysics and particle physics:

  • Origin of Cosmic Rays: By studying cosmic rays, scientists learn about the processes and sources that accelerate these particles to high energies.
  • Composition of the Universe: Analysis of cosmic ray particles helps determine the abundance of elements and isotopes in the galaxy.
  • Fundamental Physics: High-energy cosmic rays provide insights into fundamental physical processes, including particle interactions at energies unattainable by human-made accelerators.

Unanswered Questions about Cosmic Rays

Despite significant advancements, many questions about cosmic rays remain:

  • Exact Sources: While supernovae and active galactic nuclei are known sources, the precise mechanisms and locations of cosmic ray acceleration are not fully understood.
  • Highest Energy Cosmic Rays: The origins of the highest energy cosmic rays, which exceed 1020 electron volts, remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics.
  • Propagation Through Space: Understanding how cosmic rays travel through the interstellar medium and their interaction with magnetic fields remains an area of active research.

References

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  • Geiger, H.; Rutherford, Lord; Regener, E.; Lindemann, F.A.; Wilson, C.T.R.; Chadwick, J.; et al. (1931). “Discussion on Ultra-Penetrating Rays”. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A. 132 (819): 331. doi:10.1098/rspa.1931.0104
  • Hess, V.F. (1912). “Über Beobachtungen der durchdringenden Strahlung bei sieben Freiballonfahrten” [On observations of penetrating radiation during seven free balloon flights]. Physikalische Zeitschrift (in German). 13: 1084–1091.
  • Sharma, Shatendra (2008). Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Pearson Education India. ISBN 978-81-317-1924-4.